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Table 3 Residency performance outcome and complication

From: Modified paramedian versus conventional paramedian technique in the residency training: an observational study

  Conventional Method Modified Method p value*
Spinal Group
Attempt Number    < 0.001
 1 26 (20.31%) 76 (59.38%)  
 2–3 68 (53.13%) 47 (36.72%)  
  > 3 24 (18.75%) 3 (2.34%)  
 Failure 10 (7.81%) 2 (1.56%) 0.018
Complications a 2 (1.56%) 2 (1.56%) 1.000
Epidural group
Attempt Number    < 0.001
 1 11 (14.29%) 50 (64.94%)  
 2–3 24 (31.17%) 19 (24.68%)  
  > 3 30 (38.96%) 6 (7.79%)  
 Failure 12 (15.58%) 2 (2.60%)  
None error 40 (51.95%) 66 (85.71%) < 0.001
Implant error b    < 0.001
 D 12 (15.58%) 5 (6.49%)  
 P 18 (23.38%) 5 (6.49%)  
 IV 7 (9.09%) 1 (1.30%)  
Complications a 11 (14.29%) 1 (1.30%) 0.003
Combined group
Attempt Number    < 0.001
 1 8 (15.09%) 26 (47.27%)  
 2–3 15 (28.30%) 22 (40.00%)  
  > 3 18 (33.96%) 6 (10.91%)  
 Failure 12 (22.64%) 1 (1.82%)  
None error 19 (35.85%) 48 (87.27%) < 0.001
Implant error b    < 0.001
D 10 (18.87%) 2 (3.64%)  
P 19 (35.85%) 4 (7.27%)  
IV 5 (9.43%) 1 (1.82%)  
Complications a 11 (20.75%) 2 (3.64%) 0.006
  1. Values are expressed as number (n(%))
  2. a Complications include infection, epidural hematoma, and post-dural puncture headache
  3. b Implant error included dura puncture, difficulty of catheter threading, blood withdraw, and intrathecal catheterization
  4. Abbreviations: D difficulty at threading; P dura puncture, IV intravascular catheterization