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Table 1 Study Descriptions

From: Exploring culinary medicine as a promising method of nutritional education in medical school: a scoping review

Authors Study Design Setting Population Aim(s) of research Course Description
Monlezun et al. (2015) Cross-Sectional University Teaching Kitchen and various Community Centres Medical students; n = 627; Attrition NR; Any year To investigate superiority of "stimulation based medical education with deliberate practice" style hands-on cooking and nutrition education over traditional clinical education for preventive medicine in a large sample of medical students 8 session elective (28 h total): consisting of PBLs and 0·5 h pre-module video lecture, pre-module quizzes and quiz review; 1·5 h hands-on cooking. Program continues into interdisciplinary seminars for Third year medical students and a four week away rotation for Fourth year students
Dreibelbis & George (2017) Qualitative Senior Centre Teaching Kitchen Medical students; n = 4; Attrition = 0%; 4th year To partner Penn State College of Medicine with a senior center and launch a pilot culinary medicine elective with a focus on involving older community residents as intergenerational mentors 8 session elective: (3 h each) in a 2 week program consisting of in-person case-based discussions for 1 h; collaborative cooking for 2 h with elder mentor, pre-class readings, pre-session standardised quizzes and 2 hands-on culinary skills lessons with professional chef facilitator
Jaroudi et al. (2018) Mixed Methods University Lecture Hall and University Cooking Lab Medical students; n = 20; Attrition = 15%; 1st and 2nd year To develop and implement a culinary medicine elective into Texas Tech Universities Medical Program to equip students with confidence in knowledge and skills in culinary medicine concepts and to improve physician's integration of preventative medicine into patient care proficiency Elective course: duration or schedule NR; consisting of four didactic sessions and four interactive kitchen-based labs during the semester; delivered by local chefs, other medical students, and hospital dietitians
Monlezun et al. (2018) Cross-Sectional Varied Based on Institution Medical students; n = 3248; Attrition NR To determine if hands-on cooking and nutrition education for medical students can have inferred causality for improved student competencies and attitudes towards providing patients with nutrition education, students' own diet and if such a program could be scalable 8 session elective (22 h total): consisting of 0·5 h pre-class online lecture videos, a 1·5 h hands-on cooking, and a 0·75 h post-class PBL session; delivered through CHOP instructors (variable based on institution implanting the program
Hauser et al. (2019) Qualitative Offsite Commercial Kitchen Medical students, Physician assistant students; n = 36; Attrition NR; Any year To produce a Teaching Kitchen Elective for medical students that focuses on hands-on culinary techniques, dietary counseling for patients to overcome medical graduates' lack of confidence in nutrition counseling, self-care and culinary skills 8 session elective (2 h each): consisting of weekly pre-class videos and handouts; hands-on culinary skills lessons, case-based round table group discussions and recipe-based assignments; delivered by 2 physician-chefs, an executive chef, external professors specialising in medical education, nutrition and prevention research and a variety of specialty faculty members faculty members
Lawrence et al. (2019) Case Study University Food Lab Medical students, nutrition students, and medical residents; n = 48; Attrition = 27% To use a culinary medicine course to strengthen teamwork between nutrition and medical students using a collaborative environment to develop better understanding of their respective scopes of practice and establishing groundwork for effective interprofessional communication 25 h nutrition elective: consisting of 5 sessions per semester, using 5 modules from Goldring Center for Culinary Medicine at Tulane University: includes online didactic components, and 3 h in person interactive team component; taught by interdisciplinary faculty members, chef/dietitian, clinical dietitian, and family medicine physician
Pang et al. (2019) Mixed Methods Non-Profit Teaching Kitchens Medical students; n = 15 (2016), n = 16 (2017), n = 16 (2018); Attrition for all years = 0%; 2nd year 1) To develop a hands-on approach to medical nutrition education centred around teamwork. 2) To create innovative ways with food and cooking for students to connect with and understand health disparities faced in a county community population. 3) To increase medical students’ confidence counseling patients with chronic disease to make dietary change 6 session elective (15 h total): consisting of 0·5 h of physiology and nutrition lessons, 1·5 h of hands-on cooking class, and 0·5 h of communal eating and session debrief; delivered by collaboration between a physician, a registered dietitian, and a chef
Ring et al. (2019) Mixed Methods Non-Profit Teaching Kitchen and Chicago Public Schools Medical students; n = 9 (cohort 1), n = 12 (cohort 2); Attrition = 11% (cohort 1), Attrition = 0% (cohort 2); 1st and 2nd year 1) To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the culinary medicine elective by examining class attendance rates, retention, and qualitative and quantitative feedback about the course. 2) To examine preliminary efficacy of the elective in preparing medical students to counsel patients in successful behaviour change in nutrition and cooking. 3) To improve medical students’ own cooking and nutrition confidence, attitudes, and behaviours Cohort 1: 6 elective in-class sessions facilitated by faculty and chef (~ 2·5 h each): consisting of didactic teaching, counseling and motivational interviewing practice, culinary instruction and group dinner (hours NR); PLUS post-hoc 4 session service component (duration NR) teaching elementary public-school children.; Cohort 2: 6 session elective facilitated by faculty and chef: consisting of pre-class videos (3–8 min), lecture and assignment (totalling 1–1·5 h) in-class simulated patient coaching, student-led research discussions, culinary sessions (hours NR); PLUS concurrent service component 4 sessions (duration NR) teaching elementary public-school children
Hennrikus et al. (2020) Qualitative University Lecture Hall Medical students; n = 380; Attrition NR; 1st year To vertically integrate basic science metabolic and immunologic pathways with clinical disease using nutrition in a constructivist educational model 13 week non-elective basic science course consisting of lectures, PBL, simulation sessions, review sessions and patient encounters culminating in competitive "cook off" where PBL groups prepared dishes for 1 of 5 specific disorders based on previous PBL cases
Patnaik et al. (2020) Cross-Sectional University Teaching Kitchen Medical students; n = 4125; Attrition NR To determine differences in efficacy between University of Texas Health Sciences Center implementation of practical culinary and nutrition curriculum compared to other participating CHOP schools 8 session elective (28 h total): consisting of 0·5 h pre-class lecture video, 0·5 h of case-based learning, 1·5 h of hands-on cooking, 0·75 h post class PBL session
Razavi et al. (2020) Cross-Sectional Varied Based on Institution Medical students; n = 4215; Attrition NR To assess the association between participation in kitchen-based nutrition education and Mediterranean dietary intake among medical students 8 session elective (32 h total): consisting of 4 h modules divided into 1 h online didactic program, 1·5 h in-kitchen team-based case studies and nutrition discussion, 1·5 h of hands-on cooking facilitated by physicians, chefs, and dietitians
Rothman et al. (2020) Mixed methods Clinic-Based Teaching Kitchen and West Philadelphia High Schools Medical students; n = 31; Attrition n = 3%; 4th year To report initial outcomes of a pilot nutrition and culinary medicine course targeting post-clerkship 8 session elective (2 h each) taught by a chef instructor, dietitians, physicians, and patients: consisting of briefing on relevant nutrition science (5 min), culinary instruction and demonstration by a chef (75 min), case discussion during eating of a meal (30 min), a concluding debrief of the session (10 min) and a capstone project involving food planning for mock patient and presentation. Additional service component included 8, weekly sessions teaching disease prevention practical nutrition to high school students (hours NR)
Lieffers et al. (2021) Qualitative University of Saskatchewan undergraduate foods laboratory 5 workshops run with different students from different health programs (including medical and nutrition students) n = 58, attrition NR, Participant’s year of program NR To describe the implementation and evaluation of interprofessional culinary education workshops A single, 3 h workshop; elective: Workshops focused on food security and Indigenous foods relevant for Saskatchewan. Each workshop began with a didactic session, followed by cooperative cooking with a professional chef in small groups in the university teaching kitchen
Magallanes et al. (2021) Case Study University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Two separate cohorts of 32, medical students; n = 64; attrition 6·25%; 1st year 1) How a culinary medicine elective course affected student counseling confidence, familiarity with evidence-based nutrition interventions, and understanding of the role of interprofessional engagement to address lifestyle-related disease and 2) To propose directions for future research regarding culinary medicine as a nutrition education strategy 3 h monthly meetings based on 8 modules from Health meets Food curriculum. Sessions included: small group discussions; practical food preparation skills for recipes relevant to the module; eating prepared food and discussion about the nutrition science, medical research, and patient care applications relevant to the module. Sessions co-facilitated by a medical doctor and a registered dietitian
Asano et al. (2021) Case Study West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Medical students; n = 42; Attrition 19%; all 4 years To describe a culinary medicine elective course with a lifestyle modification focus and to evaluate the students’ perceived knowledge and attitudes in lifestyle medicine 2 week course. Students completed modules including video lectures, handouts and reading assignments and quizzes before completing faculty-facilitated application exercise sessions. Diabetes counseling lecture facilitated by DM education specialist. Nutrition ethics discussion, and clinical shadowing sessions included
Leggett et al. (2021) Case Study Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine Medical students; n = 16; attrition = 6.25%; all 4 years To explore an alternative way to provide nutrition education without adding hours to the formal curriculum by (1) surveying student perceptions regarding current nutrition education, (2) surveying student interest in attending a nutrition elective, (3) selecting how the elective could best be delivered, and (4) running and assessing participants’ reactions to a short experimental version of the elective 3 session elective (2 hands-on culinary medicine sessions and 1 didactic session in between—total hours NR); The first culinary session dedicated to knife skills and culinary basics; the didactic session covered coronary artery disease and nutritional preventative measures followed by 2 clinical cases in the form of an essay assessment. Patient counseling sessions developed by a registered nutritionist: culinary sessions facilitated by culinary school teaching chef
Poulton & Antono (2021) Mixed Methods Online: University of North Carolina School of Medicine medical students; n = 21; attrition = 14%; 3rd and 4th year To explore the feasibility of running an online culinary medicine course 3, 75 min "live cooking workshops" and online course work elective; delivered remotely. Cooking done in participants own kitchens; class teachers’ credentials not specified
Hashimi et al. (2020) Qualitative A local market in a 'food desert' Medical students; n = 117; 51% attrition; all 4 years of program (priority given to 1st year students To determine the feasibility of applying the culinary medicine approach in an under resourced community setting; to evaluate student perceptions of the program value and to assess student self-rated learning of nutrition science, nutrition education, and social determinants of health 3 h training session: 2 h farmers market cooking demonstration; 1 h optional debriefing
Vanderpool et al. (2020) Mixed Methods Culinary Institute of the Carolinas Greenville Technical College Medical students; n = 5; attrition = 0%; 1st and 2nd year To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and efficiency of a culinary medicine course and to assess cooking knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, confidence, and self-efficacy pre- and post- course 2 weekly sessions of 10 modules over 5 weeks.. Each module consisted of: 3–4 h in class components taught by faculty; pre- and post- module homework and a chef led lab portion. held at the Culinary Institute of the Carolinas Greenville Technical College;
D'Adamo et al. (2021) Mixed Methods Teaching kitchen at the Institute for Integrative Health, a community-based non-profit, in Baltimore Medical students at University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM); n = 125; attrition = 4·8%; 1st year To report on the implementation, curricular content, and mixed methods outcomes evaluation from the first cohort of first-year medical students at UMSOM, who received culinary medicine as a component of core medical student curriculum 2 session elective (6 h total) included: evidence-based nutrition instruction, group cooking of recipes based on the lecture concepts; eating the prepared meals together and discussing the potential application of the training to both patient care and the students’ self-care (1 h lecture provided by UMSOM faculty and 2 h cooking session covered basic training including kitchen safety; introduction to kitchen tools and knife skills and food preparation led by personnel from the Institute for Integrative Health, and Maryland University of Integrative Health
Kaye et al. (2018) Qualitative Wake Forest School of Medicine in Northern Carolina, and local YMCA community kitchen Medical students at Wake Forest School of Medicine; n = 16; 1st year To assess feasibility of scheduling and operating a student led lifestyle medicine curriculum and if students would participate in such a program (acceptability) First 3 modules offered to entire cohort, integrated within the month-long orientation portion of the program. Modules 4–11 delivered to a cohort of 16 students (25·5 h total). Training included: hands-on components exploring grocery shopping on a budget; nutritional requirements to "build a healthy plate;” meal planning and patient motivation, Program was in partnership with the local YMCA and delivered by medical students with a "background of obesity treatment" and a faculty member
Flynn et al. (2019) Case Study Student lounge at Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI Medical students; 1st year n = 39 and 2nd year n = 5, at Warren Alpert Medical School; Attrition NR To determine if a 4-week cooking program of plant-based, olive oil recipes would improve 1) diet and eating behavior in medical students and 2) practical nutrition knowledge 4, 30 min, elective sessions (2 h total); 15 min of recipe demonstration and preparation and 15 min of presentation of nutrition topic while food tasting; students encouraged to cook at home 3 dinners/week that followed similar recipes; facilitator roles NR
Kumra et al. (2021) Case Study Community church near primary care medical home, East Baltimore Medical staff (medical assistants, office assistants, nurses, and physicians) and medical students; n = 34; attrition = 14·7%; (16 medical support staff and 12, 1st and 2nd year medical students, and 1 physician) To determine if a culinary medicine curriculum delivered to a multidisciplinary team of primary care medical staff and medical students in a community setting would improve self-reported efficacy in nutritional counseling and if efficacy differed between participant roles 4 h interactive workshop delivered to medical staff and medical students within the neighborhood of a primary care medical home; Workshop included presentation on the principles of culinary medicine, motivational interviewing, nutrition education and counseling. Specifically, the 4 principles of motivational interviewing, engaging, focusing, evoking, and planning, were described, followed by a trip to the local food shops and then food preparation of 4 recipes while nutrition topics were reinforced; each workshop was led by a physician and registered dietician
Musick et al. (2020) Case Study Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and culinary school teaching kitchen Students from medicine, nursing, and physician assistant programs; n = 248 (medical = 84; nursing = 80; physician assistant = 84); attrition NR; year of program NR 1) To deliver Interprofessional education core competencies in an applied manner via culinary training and 2) to deliver basic concepts of nutrition to pre-clinical students and 3) to equip learners to apply culinary medicine skills in addressing the difficulties inherent in telling patients to “eat and cook healthy” 9, 3 h course sessions (27 h total). New culinary medicine track featured three components: 1) delivery of core content pertaining to clinical nutrition- included didactic presentations, small group learning sessions, simulation-based experiences, panel presentations, and a case-based learning activity whereby student teams worked through patient scenarios featuring nutrition as a prominent clinical issue; 2) team-based meal preparation and service—two meal preparation lab sessions including preparation of a collection of healthy recipes and 3) community outreach where participants taught nutrition concepts to children in various age groups at 7–8 different locations across the city. Sessions taught by an interdisciplinary team of a physician, nursing, physician assistant and health psychology faculty. 3 culinary school chefs guided students through the meal preparation and service processes
  1. n Sample population, NR Not reported, CHOP Cooking Through Health Optimisation, PBL Peer-based learning