Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of the interventions

From: The effectiveness of using virtual patient educational tools to improve medical students’ clinical reasoning skills: a systematic review

First author (year) Country Virtual Patient tool name Need to gather data Delivery Clinical topic No. cases Approximate time to complete one case Delivered on single or multiple occasions Feedback used Reflection used
Aghili et al. 2012 Iran Not reported Yes Solo Endocrinology 2 Not reported Multiple Yes No
Botezatu et al. 2010 Colombia Web-SP No Solo Haematology and cardiology 6 1 h Multiple Yes No
Chon et al. 2019 Germany EMERGE Yes Solo Surgery 4 15 min Multiple Yes No
Dekhtyar et al. 2021 USA i-Human Patients Yes Solo Abdominal pain and loss of consciousness 3 Not reported Single Yes No
Devitt & Palmer 1998 Australia MEDICI No Solo Liver disease 5 18 min Multiple Yes No
Isaza-Restrepo et al. 2018 Colombia The Virtual Patient: Simulator of Clinical Case Yes Solo Gastroenterology 16 2 h Multiple Yes No
Kahl et al. 2010 Germany Not reported No Group Psychiatry Not reported Not reported Multiple No No
Kalet et al. 2007 USA WISE-MD No Solo Surgery Not reported Not reported Multiple No No
Kim et al. 2018 USA MedU No Solo Multiple 22 (these were required but access to more) Not reported Multiple Yes No
Kleinert et al. 2015 Germany ALICE Yes Solo Cancer 3 Not reported Single Yes No
Lehmann et al. 2015 Germany CAMPUS No Solo Paediatrics 2 1 h Multiple Yes No
Middeke et al. 2018 Germany EMERGE Yes Solo Accident & emergency 40 9 min Multiple Yes No
Plackett et al. 2020 UK eCREST Yes Solo Cardio-respiratory 3 13 min Multiple Yes Yes
Qin et al. 2022 China Not reported No Solo Radiology 5 12 min Multiple Yes No
Raupach et al. 2009 Germany Clix ® No Group Cardio-respiratory 1 10 h Multiple No No
Raupach et al. 2021 Germany Not reported Yes Solo Cardio-respiratory 48 11 min Multiple Yes No
Sobocan et al. 2017 Slovenia MedU Not reported Group Internal medicine Not reported Not reported Multiple No No
Watari et al. 2021 Japan ®Body Interact, Coimbra, Portugal Not reported Solo Cardiology and psychiatry 2 20 min Single No No
Wu et al. 2014 China Not reported Yes Solo Nephrology 4 5 h Multiple No No