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Table 1 PICOS, inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Mentoring in palliative medicine in the time of covid-19: a systematic scoping review

PICOS Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria
Population CNEP
• Undergraduate or post-graduate medical students or trainees in all years, residents, clinical fellows and/or attending physicians in clinical, medical, academia and/or research settings (for CNEP mentoring)
• Internal Medicine Specialties (for articles based in clinical settings discussing CNEP)
IPT
• Undergraduate or post-graduate nursing, medical social work, physiotherapy and occupational therapy students or trainees in all years, nurses, medical social workers, physiotherapists and/or occupational therapists in clinical, medical, academia and/or research settings (only for articles discussing inter-professional mentoring)
• Internal Medicine Specialties (for articles based in clinical settings) and Family Medicine (only for articles based in clinical settings discussing inter-professional mentoring)
• Non-healthcare related professions (e.g. Science, Veterinary), Psychology, Alternative and Traditional Medicine (including Chiropractic, Traditional Chinese Medicine)
• Specialties other than Internal Medicine Specialties (for articles based in clinical settings discussing CNEP)
• Specialties other than Internal Medicine Specialties (for articles based in clinical settings) and Family Medicine (only for articles based in clinical settings discussing inter-professional mentoring)
Intervention • Electronic communication used to facilitate mentoring by senior, near-peer and peer mentors and its influence on the implementation and evaluation of mentoring program
• Electronic platforms facilitating mentoring programs
• Near-peer and peer- mentoring practices that support novice mentoring in its implementation and evaluation of mentoring programs
• Interprofessional mentoring involving mentors and mentees who are medical, nursing, medical social work, physiotherapy and occupational therapy healthcare professionals and students
• Technology used but not in the medical mentoring communication process (for instance, ultrasound near-peer mentoring)
• Mentoring for leadership as well as patient and family mentoring
• Supervising, coaching, role-modelling, advising, tutoring, networking, sponsorship, wet-bench learning, tele-learning and skills-based learning
• Poor characterisation of the way mentoring is conducted and how the mentees and mentors were involved
Comparison • Comparison accounts of interprofessional, transprofessional, multiprofessional, interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, multidisciplinary mentoring
• Comparisons of the various definitions, descriptions, characteristics and roles of near-peer, peer- and e-mentoring in novice mentoring and their impact upon the mentoring process, mentoring relationship, mentor, mentee, host organization, and mentoring environment
 
Outcome • Definition and Characteristics of IPT or CNEP mentoring
• Motivations, benefits and outcomes of IPT or CNEP mentoring, and their impact on the mentoring process, relationship, mentor, mentee, host organization and mentoring environment
• Approach to nurturing IPT or CNEP mentoring
• Methods and criteria of evaluation and assessment of IPT or CNEP mentoring
• Challenges, limitations and knowledge gaps in IPT or CNEP mentoring
 
Study design • All study designs were included, including:
o Mixed methods research, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and descriptive papers
o Grey Literature / electronic and print information not controlled by commercial publishing
o Case reports and series, ideas, editorials, and perspectives
• Articles in English or translated to English
• Year of Publication: 1 January 2000 –28th February 2021