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Table 2 Summary of exploratory factor analysis: descriptive statistics, factor loading, and reliability for nursing students (N = 325)

From: Development and validation of the oral presentation evaluation scale (OPES) for nursing students

   Score Factor loading
Item Description Mean SD 1 2 3
7 The content of the presentation matches the theme 4.25 0.62 .76 .20 .17
14 Presentation aids, such as PowerPoint and posters, highlight key points of the report 4.21 0.74 .75 .21 .30
15 Proper use of presentation aids such as PowerPoint and posters 4.32 0.69 .74 .12 .28
8 The content of the presentation is clear and focused 4.02 0.69 .72 .36 .11
10 The content of the presentation is organized and logical 3.93 0.75 .72 .38 .13
4 Preparation of presentation aids, such as PowerPoint and posters, in advance 4.53 .67 .70 −.10 .20
16 Presentation aids, such as PowerPoint and posters, help the audience understand the content of the presentation 4.26 0.68 .69 .20 .37
9 The organization of the presentation is structured to provide the necessary information, while also adhering to time limitations 4.10 0.69 .68 .30 .18
11 The content of the presentation provides correct information 4.12 0.66 .68 .31 .10
1 Preparation of the content in accordance with the theme and rules in advance 4.49 0.61 .64 −.02 .39
13 The entire content of the presentation is prepared in a way that is understandable to the audience 3.99 0.77 .61 .40 .09
22 Presenter demonstrates confidence and an appropriate level of enthusiasm 3.92 0.91 .17 .83 .25
21 Presenter uses body language in a manner that increases the audience’s interest in learning 3.50 0.95 .09 .81 .22
24 Presenter interacts with the audience using eye contact during the question and answer session 3.65 0.92 .15 .77 .24
23 Presenter responds to the audience’s questions properly 3.63 0.87 .23 .77 .17
12 The presenter’s performance is brilliant; it resonates with the audience and arouses their interests 3.43 0.78 .43 .65 .04
17 The pronunciation of the words in the presentation is correct 3.98 0.82 .31 .29 .74
18 The tone and volume of the presenter’s voice is appropriate 3.82 0.82 .22 .50 .70
19 The words and phrases of the presenter are smooth and fluent 3.70 0.82 .26 .52 .65
20 The clothing worn by the presenter is appropriate 4.16 0.77 .33 .12 .57
  Eigenvalue (sum of squared loading)    6.01 4.34 2.60
Explained variance    30.03% 21.72% 13.00%
Cumulative variance    30.03% 51.75% 64.75%
Cronbach’s α for each subscale    .93 .89 .84
Cronbach’s α for the total scale    .94   
Item Deleted following EFA      
2 Considers the background or needs of the audience to prepare the content of the presentation in advance 3.94 0.84    
3 Discusses the content of the presentation with experts, teachers or peers (classmates) in advance 3.94 0.89    
5 Practices several times in private in before the presentation 3.96 0.89    
6 Invites classmates or teachers to watch a rehearsal before the presentation 3.39 1.04    
25 Reflects on the experience as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the presentation 3.83 0.85    
26 Obtains feedback from peers (e.g. classmates), teachers, or an audience 3.92 0.81    
  1. Abbreviations:SD standard deviation, EFA exploratory factor analysis