Table 3 Identifying factors associated with vaccine hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare students. Weighted logistic regression analysis. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy study among healthcare students, France, January–February 2021 (n = 1465)

Vaccine hesitancy n (%)* Univariate OR (95% CI) p Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Hesitancy N = 600 No hesitancy N = 862
Gender
Female 558 (89.3) 658 (68.8) Ref   Ref
Male 42 (10.7) 204 (31.2) 0.27 (0.18, 0.39) < 0.001 0.34 (0.19, 0.60)
Age
< 19 years old 201 (30.6) 290 (30.9) Ref
[20–22] years old 248 (43.3) 373 (43.1) 1.01 (0.78, 1.32) 0.92
> 23 years old 151 (26.0) 199 (26.0) 1.01 (0.74, 1.37) 0.95
Training courses
Common first year§ 102 (10.5) 232 (21.4) Ref   Ref
Medical (2nd year to 6th year) 56 (5.4) 292 (22.9) 0.48 (0.33, 0.70) < 0.001 0.39 (0.23, 0.67)
Midwifery (2nd year to 5th year) 37 (5.1) 60 (6.8) 1.53 (0.95, 2.46) 0.08 0.79 (0.42, 1.50)
Physiotherapy (2nd year to 5th year) 237 (15.4) 104 (22.4) 1.41 (0.94, 2.10) 0.09 1.00 (0.57, 1.76)
Nursing (1st year to 3rd year) 64 (51.9) 109 (20.3) 5.20 (3.71, 7.28) < 0.001 2.76 (1.70, 4.48)
Other 104 (11.7) 65 (6.3) 3.79 (2.56, 5.61) < 0.001 1.70 (0.96, 3.03)
Internship during the epidemic**
Yes 478 (86.6) 622 (77.5) Ref
No 122 (13.4) 240 (22.5) 0.53 (0.41, 0.69) < 0.001
Have presented COVID-19
No 467 (75.5) 680 (78.3) Ref
Yes 133 (24.5) 182 (21.7) 1.17 (0.76, 1.21) 0.74
Being contact case of a confirmed case at least once
No 288 (46.4) 388 (45.4) Ref
Yes 312 (53.6) 474 (54.6) 0.96 (0.76, 1.21) 0.74
Have had relatives ill and/or hospitalized for COVID
None 205 (34.7) 239 (29.7) Ref 0.72
Relatives hospitalized for COVID 84 (14.6) 104 (11.7) 1.07 (0.74, 1.55) 0.02
Relatives with COVID but not hospitalized 311 (50.8) 519 (58.7) 0.74 (0.57, 0.96)
Having relatives at risk of severe COVID
No 123 (21.1) 161 (18.0) Ref
Yes 477 (78.9) 701 (82.0) 0.82 (0.62, 1.10) 0.2
No 474 (80.9) 486 (59.0) Ref   Ref
Yes 126 (19.1) 376 (41.0) 0.34 (0.26, 0.44) < 0.001 0.65 (0.44, 0.95)
Have been vaccinated against the 2020 seasonal flu
No 520 (86.4) 545 (66.7) Ref   Ref
Yes 80 (13.6) 317 (33.3) 0.32 (0.23, 0.42) < 0.001 0.42 (0.27, 0.66)
Feeling or having felt isolated
No 271 (48.7) 292 (38.1) Ref
Yes 304 (51.3) 535 (61.9) 0.65 (0.51, 0.82) < 0.001
Fear for one’s health
No 465 (79.8) 719 (86.3) Ref
Yes 110 (20.2) 108 (13.7) 1.60 (1.16, 2.20) 0.004
Fear for relatives’ health
No 168 (28.1) 185 (22.7) Ref
Yes 407 (71.9) 642 (77.3) 0.75 (0.57, 0.98) 0.03
Sources of information used††
Do not look for information 31 (5.6) 26 (3.0) Ref
Use reliable sources 274 (47.8) 466 (57.1) 0.46 (0.25, 0.83) 0.01
Use unreliable sources 281 (46.6) 365 (39.8) 0.64 (0.35, 1.16) 0.14
Have personal good knowledge on COVID-19 vaccines
Neither agree nor disagree 208 (35.4) 315 (36.5) Ref   Ref
Agreed 88 (15.2) 270 (33.0) 0.47 (0.34, 0.66) < 0.001 0.51 (0.30, 0.86)
Disagree 290 (49.4) 271 (30.5) 1.67 (1.29, 2.17) < 0.001 1.14 (0.77, 1.69)
Act as a referral for family or friends to provide information about COVID-19
Neither agree nor disagree 158 (26.9) 171 (20.5) Ref   Ref
Agreed 180 (31.0) 433 (50.6) 0.47 (0.35, 0.63) < 0.001 0.61 (0.39, 0.97)
Disagree 248 (42.1) 252 (28.9) 1.11 (0.82, 1.51) 0.5 0.96 (0.60, 1.55)
Consider that vaccination should be made mandatory for caregivers
Neither agree nor disagree 159 (24.6) 212 (25.0) Ref   Ref
Agreed 52 (8.2) 539 (62.5) 0.13 (0.09, 0.20) < 0.001 0.33 (0.21, 0.53)
Disagree 375 (67.2) 105 (12.5) 5.46 (3.91, 7.63) < 0.001 3.43 (2.17, 5.40)
Consider that healthcare students should participate to the vaccination campaign
Neither agree nor disagree 232 (37.5) 192 (21.8) Ref   Ref
Agreed 92 (16.2) 593 (70.6) 0.13 (0.10, 0.18) < 0.001 0.31 (0.21, 0.47)
Disagree 262 (46.3) 71 (7.6) 3.55 (2.47, 5.09) < 0.001 2.45 (1.47, 4.08)
Consider that certain activities should be conditioned by vaccine status
Neither agree nor disagree 106 (17.1) 200 (23.1) Ref   Ref
Agreed 89 (14.6) 491 (56.8) 0.35 (0.24, 0.49) < 0.001 0.77 (0.49, 1.20)
Disagree 391 (68.3) 165 (20.1) 4.60 (3.32, 6.38) < 0.001 1.73 (1.10, 2.73)
1. * Weighted proportions. Amounts may be discreetly less than or greater than 100% due to rounding
2. Univariate odds-ratio (OR) are calculated using a weighted logistic regression
3. Adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) are calculated using a weighted logistic regression
4. § Common and first year of several health studies
5. ** This variable was not used in the multivariate model because the students of the common first year of medial, midwifery and physiotherapy studies do not carry out an internship during their training year
6. †† The variable was defined based on several responses about the nature of the sources of information used by the respondents. Thus, if the respondent mentioned looking for information on institutional sites (Ministry of health, recommendations from experts or medical associations …), in scientific journals, university lectures, it was indicated that he/she was using “reliable sources”. On the contrary, the respondent looking for information via mass media, general press, social networks, or the Internet was considered as using “unreliable sources”. Responses indicating that the respondent did not look for information at all were kept as such