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Table 3 Physician Burnout and Satisfaction, by Faculty Rank

From: Do physicians with academic affiliation have lower burnout and higher career-related satisfaction?

  Ordinal Logistic Regressions Multivariable Linear Regressions
Independent Variables Emotional Exhaustiona (OR, 95% CI) Depersonalizationa (OR, 95% CI) Time Use Satisfaction (SE) Career Satisfaction (SE)
Professor Ref Ref Ref Ref
Associate Professor 1.57*** (1.22–2.04) 1.44*** (1.11–1.88) -0.09 (0.07) -0.14** (0.06)
Assistant Professor 1.64*** (1.28–2.11) 1.22 (0.95–1.58) -0.09 (0.07) -0.14** (0.05)
Instructor 1.72*** (1.29–2.29) 1.35* (1.01–1.82) -0.12 (0.08) -0.23*** (0.06)
Other rankings 1.39 (0.91–2.12) 0.97 (0.63–1.49) -0.18 (0.12) -0.11 (0.09)
Weekly percent time spent teaching 0.99 (0.99–1.01) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00)
Male 0.68*** (0.58–0.80) 0.80** (0.99–1.00) 0.16*** (0.05) 0.15*** (0.04)
Under-represented in Medicine (URM) 0.86 (0.58–1.28) 1.07 (0.72–1.60) 0.03 (0.10) 0.08 (0.08)
Asian 1.04 (0.70–1.53) 1.07 (0.72–1.58) 0.00 (0.10) 0.15 (0.08)
White 1.09 (0.76–1.57) 1.25 (0.87–1.81) 0.00 (0.09) 0.18* (0.08)
Heterosexual/ Straight 0.74 (0.52–1.05) 0.75 (0.52–1.09) 0.16 (0.10) 0.08 (0.08)
Age < 35 Ref Ref Ref Ref
Age [35, 55) 1.22 (1.08–1.67) 0.98 (0.92–1.44) -0.14 (0.07) -0.02 (0.06)
Age [55,75) 1.27 (0.79–2.04) 0.68 (0.42–1.11) -0.04 (0.14) -0.07 (0.11)
Age ≥ 75 1.05 (0.44–2.53) 0.31* (0.11–0.86) 0.26 (0.25) 0.24 (0.19)
Rural 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 1.07 (0.87–1.33) 0.02 (0.06) 0.11* (0.05)
Practice location: Metropolitanb 1.44* (1.02–2.04) 1.20 (0.84–1.73) -0.06 (0.04) 0.09 (0.08)
Married/Committed relationship 1.14 (0.92–1.41) 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 0.04 (0.06) 0.14*** (0.05)
Total number of children under 5c 0.78*** (0.67–0.92) 0.92 (0.77–1.09) 0.06 (0.05) -0.01 (0.04)
Hours worked (per week) 1.01*** (1.01- 1.02) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) -0.01*** (0.00) 0.00 (0.00)
Practice experience (years) 0.97*** (0.96–0.99 0.98*** (0.97–0.99) 0.00 (0.00) 0.01** (0.00)
Specialty: Medical Specialties Ref  Ref  Ref Ref 
Specialty: Other 1.14 (0.93–1.42) 1.12 (0.91–1.40) 0.08 (0.06) -0.02 (0.05)
Specialty: Primary Care 1.28* (1.05–1.58) 1.10 (1.90–1.36) -0.07 (0.06) -0.08 (0.05)
Specialty: Surgery 0.91 (0.73–1.14) 0.93 (0.75–1.18) 0.00 (0.06) 0.01 (0.05)
International Medical Graduates (IMGs) 0.64*** (0.51–0.76) 0.67*** (0.52–0.78) 0.07 (0.05) 0.03 (0.04)
Constant - - 3.84 3.64
Observations 2,342 2.338 2,348 2,344
Adjusted R2d 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.06
  1. Source: National Sample Survey of Physicians (2019), Association of American Medical Colleges Notes: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, standard error, 95%CI are in parentheses. Weights were not applied to ordinal logistic regressions
  2. aEmotional exhaustion, depersonalization models reported Odds Ratio (OR), OR = 1 is baseline reference, higher OR (OR > 1) is less desirable, indicated higher odds of burnout The odds ratios are reported odds of feeling burnout, callous everyday compared to other burnout, callous frequencies on the scale
  3. bMetropolitan practice locations were derived from current practice location zip code, and cross walked to Rural–Urban Commuting Area codes (RUCA). We then classified each location into metropolitan area (RUCA 1–4) and non-metropolitan area (RUCA 5–10)
  4. cTotal number of children under 5 from our data is heavily right skewed, so we performed various types of transformations, but log transformation is not appropriate in our case due to high frequency of zeros
  5. dThe C statistics (pseudo R2) are 0.025 and 0.026