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Table 4 Summary of analyses of learning self-efficacy at the end of semester

From: Does ultrasound education improve anatomy learning? Effects of the Parallel Ultrasound Hands-on (PUSH) undergraduate medicine course

   Multivariate test b
  Critical value test a Compared to Aff. Compared to Psy.
L-SES Mean ± SD d MD P MD P
Overall 3.68 ± 0.56** 2.41
Cog. 3.91 ± 0.67** 2.78 0.58 < 0.001 0.12 0.011
Aff. 3.33 ± 0.66** 1.00 −0.46 < 0.001
Psy. 3.79 ± 0.69** 2.28
  1. a, one-sample t-test with threshold value 3; b, repeated measurement; ** P < 0.001; Aff. affective domain, Cog. cognitive domain, d Cohen’s d, LSE learning self-efficacy, MD mean difference, Psy. psychomotor domain, SD standard deviation