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Table 3 Pre-and Post-RWs Self Efficacy Scores

From: Low-cost peer-taught virtual research workshops for medical students in Pakistan: a creative, scalable, and sustainable solution for student research

  Pre-RW (/10) Post-RW (/10) Post-Pre (/10) P-Value
Research Skills (Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD)
Initiating Research (RW1)
Identify a good research question 3.88 ± 2.40 7.06 ± 2.42 3.18 ± 2.20 <  0.001
Conduct a database literature search 4.13 ± 2.67 7.15 ± 2.49 3.02 ± 2.33 <  0.001
Manuscript Writing (RW1 and RW4)
Critically appraise research articles 3.49 ± 2.66 6.65 ± 2.51 3.16 ± 2.48 <  0.001
Writing a research manuscript 3.57 ± 2.73 6.80 ± 2.52 3.22 ± 2.49 <  0.001
Considering Ethics in Research (RW2)
Avoid plagiarism in your manuscript 4.91 ± 3.03 7.17 ± 2.70 2.26 ± 2.39 <  0.001
Take ethical issues into consideration 5.15 ± 3.08 7.72 ± 2.57 2.57 ± 2.59 <  0.001
Data Mining and Statistical Analysis (RW3)
Understand data and types of variables 3.74 ± 2.83 7.33 ± 2.62 3.59 ± 2.70 <  0.001
Designing a research survey 4.12 ± 2.79 7.11 ± 2.49 3.00 ± 2.43 <  0.001
Designing a survey-based methodology 3.90 ± 2.80 6.90 ± 2.50 3.00 ± 2.52 <  0.001
Understand descriptive analysis 4.39 ± 2.96 7.41 ± 2.57 3.02 ± 2.62 <  0.001
Understand the types of T-tests 3.04 ± 2.93 7.39 ± 2.71 4.35 ± 3.33 <  0.001
Understand Chi-Square tests 3.35 ± 3.07 7.29 ± 2.71 3.94 ± 3.17 <  0.001
Understanding an ANOVA test 2.49 ± 2.82 7.05 ± 2.73 4.56 ± 3.33 <  0.001
Networking Skills (RW5)
Writing a professional email 4.49 ± 2.95 7.46 ± 2.58 2.97 ± 2.56 <  0.001
Networking ability 4.19 ± 2.85 7.12 ± 2.62 2.93 ± 2.48 <  0.001
Choosing the right research mentor 3.81 ± 2.85 7.01 ± 2.62 3.20 ± 2.59 <  0.001