Skip to main content

Table 4 Relationships of medical students’ preclinical SL experience with their empathy level in clinical clerkships: Generalised estimating equation modelling

From: Medical students’ preclinical service-learning experience and its effects on empathy in clinical training

Variables Dimensions of Empathy
Perspective taking Compassionate care Standing in patients’ shoes
Estimates SE Sig Estimates SE Sig Estimates SE Sig
Intercept −1.074 1.253 0.391 −1.880 1.176 0.110 1.375 1.215 0.258
Preclinical SL experience
 CBST membership (default = no) −0.054 0.272 0.843 −0.132 0.309 0.669 −0.065 0.248 0.792
 CBST service intensity: total hours serveda −0.019 0.013 0.161 0.031 0.012 0.012 −0.011 0.016 0.482
 ECST membership (default = no) 0.041 0.247 0.868 0.492 0.253 0.052 0.162 0.233 0.487
 ECST service intensity: total hours servedb 0.008 0.003 0.013 0.003 0.003 0.274 0.006 0.004 0.101
 Perceived SL self-efficacy 0.247 0.137 0.071 −0.186 0.120 0.121 0.194 0.150 0.197
Demographic characteristics
 SEX (default = male) −0.095 0.194 0.625 −0.070 0.200 0.728 −0.191 0.181 0.290
 AGEc −0.329 1.067 0.758 −1.826 1.098 0.096 1.737 1.082 0.109
Model fit QIC = 1020.826
QICC = 252.786
QIC = 846.987
QICC = 246.639
QIC = 1123.132
QICC = 245.870
  1. Note:
  2. 1. SL: service learning; CBST: curriculum-based service team; ECST: extracurricular service team
  3. 2. aCBST service intensity: total hours served was calculated by multiplying the number of service themes a student was engaged in by the average number of hours spent per CBST service theme. The original value of total hours engaged in CBST was transformed using the square root value to meet the assumption of normality
  4. 3. bECST service intensity: total hours served was calculated by multiplying the number of service themes a student engaged in by the average number of hours spent per ECST service theme. The original value of total hours engaged in ECST was transformed using square root value to meet the assumption of normality
  5. 4. cThe original AGE value was transformed using LN(LN(LG(X))) because of the violation of the normality assumption