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Table 3 Repeated measures ANOVA results by difference in scores at different time point

From: A multi-site study on the impact of an advance care planning workshop on attitudes, beliefs and behavioural intentions over a 6-month period

Measures Mean Difference in score SE t p value 95% CI of mean difference d
Lower Bound Upper Bound
Understanding of ACP
 Pre to Post .62 .06 11.07 <.001* .49 .76 1.27
 Post to Follow-up −.18 .06 −.3.22 .002† .31 .58 −.40
 Pre to Follow-up .44 .05 7.86 <.001* −.32 −.05 1.0
Perceived skill competency
 Pre to Post .70 .05 13.95 <.001* .58 .82 1.42
 Post to Follow-up −.14 .05 −2.74 .02† −.26 −.02 −.31
 Pre to Follow-up .56 .05 11.21 <.001* .44 .68 1.25
Overall confidence
 Pre to Post .67 .06 11.78 <.001* .53 .81 1.25
 Post to Follow-up −.17 .05 −2.95 .011† −.31 −.03 −.34
 Pre to Follow-up .50 .06 8.83 <.001* .37 .64 .94
Positive behavioural intention
 Pre to Post .13 .05 2.55 .034† .01 .24 .27
 Post to Follow-up −.18 .05 −3.60 .001* −.29 −.06 −.39
 Pre to Follow-up −.05 .04 −1.05 .889 −.17 .07 −.12
Beliefs on benefits of ACP
 Pre to Post .17 .05 3.07 .007† .04 .31 .34
 Post to Follow-up −.16 .05 −2.90 .013† −.30 −.03 −.33
 Pre to Follow-up .01 .04 .17 1.0 −.13 .14 .02
Beliefs that ACP is emotionally draining for all
 Pre to Post .03 .07 .44 1.00 −.13 .19 .05
 Post to Follow-up .09 .07 1.33 .55 −.07 .25 .14
 Pre to Follow-up .12 .06 1.78 .23 −.04 .27 .18
Beliefs that ACP is pleasant experience for self
 Pre to Post .42 .06 6.44 <.001* .27 .58 .68
 Post to Follow-up −.19 .07 −2.86 .014† −.35 −.03 −.29
 Pre to Follow-up .24 .06 3.58 .001† .08 .40 .37
  1. Note: contrasts subjected to Bonferroni correction and Cohen’s d indicate the standardised difference for each pair of means
  2. * significant at the .001 level
  3. † significant at the .01 level