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Table 1 Proposed topics and contents for the integrated diabetes-periodontitis nutrition and health education module

From: Development and evaluation of an integrated diabetes-periodontitis nutrition and health education module

No. Topics Contents
1. Introduction to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Definition of diabetes
Causes of diabetes
Sign and symptoms of diabetes
Risk factors of diabetes
Complications of diabetes
Risk of pre-diabetes
2. Introduction to Periodontitis Definition of periodontitis
Causes of periodontitis
Signs and symptoms of periodontitis
Risk factors of periodontitis
Complications of periodontitis
3. Diabetes and Periodontitis Bi-directional relationship between diabetes and periodontitis
Hyperglycaemia and oral health
Diabetes, periodontitis and mouth breath
4. Treatment Treatment for diabetes
Treatment for dental disease
5. Blood Sugar Monitoring Target of blood sugar profile
Importance of good glycaemic control
6. Weight Management Principles of weight management
Target for weight reduction
Readiness to change
7. Dietary Management Healthy eating
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate exchanges
Added sugar
Dietary fibre
Antioxidants
Menu planning
Food label
Tips for healthy cooking
Tips for eating outside
8. Physical Activity & Exercise Benefits of exercise
Types of exercise
Duration of exercise
How to achieve 10,000 steps
Simple tips to be physically active
Precautions to hypoglycaemia during exercise
9. Ways to Keep Oral Health Tips to keep oral health
Tooth brushing twice daily
Daily flossing or interdental cleaning
Healthy and balanced diet
Regular dental check-ups
Avoid smoking
10. Smoking Cessation Smoking and periodontitis
Tips for smoking cessation
11. Alcohol Intake Alcohol intake & diabetes
Tips for reducing alcohol intake
12. Stress Management Tips for stress management
Family support
13. Fasting (religious and intermittent fasting) Tips for fasting for diabetic patients
Conditions to break fast
Dental care during fasting
14. Hypoglycaemia Possible causes of hypoglycaemia
Signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia
Hypoglycaemia management
15. Hyperglycaemia Possible causes of hyperglycaemia
Signs and symptoms of hyperglycaemia
Hyperglycaemia management