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Table 2 Possible explanations of the high rate of non-compliance with recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic

From: The necessity of examining patients’ social behavior and teaching behavior change theories: curricular innovations induced by the COVID-19 pandemic

Theory or model Construct Hypothesisa
HBM Perceived susceptibility People do not perceive themselves susceptible to the COVID-19 and its harmful consequences.
HBM Perceived severity People do not believe in the severity of the condition or the extent of harm form the COVID-19.
HBM Cues to action People are not faced with proper triggers (whether internal or external) to accept the recommendations about the COVID-19.
TPB Behavioral intention People have not seriously considered the COVID-19 yet and do not have a serious plan to follow the recommendations.
TPB Attitude towards the behavior People do not appreciate the value of following the recommendations about the COVID-19.
TPB Subjective norm People believe that the significant others in their lives will not support their performance to comply with the COVID-19 recommendations.
TPB Outcome evaluations People underestimate the value of the consequences of following the recommendations with the COVID-19.
SCT Outcome expectancies
SCT Self-efficacy in overcoming impediments People are not confident enough that they can overcome barriers when following the recommendations with the COVID-19.
SCT Knowledge People have not learnt adequate facts and have not gained enough insights about following the recommendations with the COVID-19.
  1. a Proposed based on constructs of behavior change theories or models