Skip to main content

Table 3 Dimensions and variation in students’ experiences and conceptions of learning about EBP in the literature research activity

From: Factors affecting paramedicine students’ learning about evidence‐based practice: a phenomenographic study

Dimension of experience Category 1 (least sophisticated) Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 (most sophisticated)
A. Processes needed to frame and answer a question by searching literature No evidence of learning processes for literature analysis, focus on answer to question or use of search techniques Acquires and applies search and limited evaluation strategies and believes this is sufficient to answer a question Recognises complexity but may be confused or feel that no reliable judgements can be made because the literature is not trustworthy Recognises the need for critical analysis in judging which research findings to believe
B. Production and nature of medical research knowledge Expects a clear answer, frustrated if not acquired – no evidence of learning about the nature of research Recognises differences in quality of research and explains
with reference to bias or poor practice
Recognises differences in reliability of research and limitations of research with human subjects but has difficulty in evaluating such issues Recognises uncertainty as inherent to medical knowledge, and knowledge as dynamic and therefore needing continual production
C. Ways in which medical research knowledge is integrated with practice Sees no relevance to practice Sees research as relevant to practice but sees integration as largely unproblematic Focus on tension between scientific and practice knowledge but without ability to resolve Recognises need to critically combine scientific knowledge with clinical
experience (own and others) and patient’s unique context