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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The effectiveness of virtual reality-based technology on anatomy teaching: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

First authorParticipants/CountryN (VR/control)CourseInterventionComparatorDuration
Anthony, 2011 [19]medical students/UK12/14anatomy of the forearmVRdissection and textbooks50 min
Battulga, 2012 [20]medical students/Japan50/50shoulder3D interactive models2D images60 min
de Faria, 2016 [21]medical students/Brazil28/28neuroanatomy3D interactive models2D images60 min
Ellington, 2018 [22]residents/UK16/15female pelvic anatomyVRpower point2 weeks
Hampton, 2010 [23]medical students 3, 4 year /USA21/22female pelvic anatomy3D interactive modelsdissection and textbooks60 min
Keedy, 2011 [24]medical students 1, 4 year/USA23/23anatomy of the liver3D interactive models2D images1 day
Khot, 2013 [25]medical students/Canada20/20pelvic anatomyVRpower point10 min
Kockro, 2015 [26]medical students/Germany89/80spatial neuroanatomy3D interactive modelspower point20 min
Moro, 2017 [27]medical students/Australia20/22skull anatomyVR3D models10 min
Nicholson, 2004 [28]medical students 1 year /USA29/28ear anatomy3D interactive modelstext books2 day
Seixas, 2010 [29]surgical trainees/USA5/5human anatomyVR2D images1 day
Solyar, 2008 [30]medical student/USA7/8paranasal sinusesVRtextbooks60 min
Stepan, 2017 [31]medical students 1,2 year /USA33/33neuroanatomyVRtext books1 day
Tan, 2012 [32]residents/ Canada21/19laryngeal anatomy3D interactive modelstext books45 min
Zachary, 2015 [33]medical students/USA41/32neuroanatomy3D interactive models2D images and 3D models65 min