Skip to main content

Table 3 List with categories and their respective occurrence in the interview data of novices and experts

From: How novice and expert anaesthetists understand expertise in anaesthesia: a qualitative study

Theme Category Description Mentioned by novices Mentioned by experts
Being a novice Learning the basics Account of learning experiences during the first months x x
Complexity Descriptions of clinical situations in combination with feelings of being overwhelmed, difficulty understanding the situation x  
Mentoring Mentors and clinical teachers, social support x x
Quasi-normative rules Following the consultant’s rules, anticipating what the superior’s rule might be x  
Patient safety Reference to patient safety x x
Making progress Descriptions of personal progress over time x  
Carrying responsibility Being responsible for a patient; the weight of responsibility x  
Learning Learning strategies, learning from experience x x
Negative aspects Account of difficult circumstances, difficult situations during the time as novice x x
Being an expert Goals Into which kind of clinician does the novice want to evolve x x
Passive process Reference to passive aspects of becoming an expert x  
Active process Reference to active aspects of becoming an expert x x
Social support Reference to peers supporting the novices’ development x x
Challenges Challenges and difficulties on the way to becoming an expert x x
Knowledge and experience Textbook knowledge References to explicit, textbook knowledge x x
Experiential knowledge References to implicit, experiential knowledge x x
Knowledge and experience Relationship between textbook knowledge and experience X X
Standards and guidelines References to standards and guidelines, assessment of the role standards and guidelines play x x
Violating standards Not following rules in order to create patient safety x x
Being lucky Reference to luck as a third pillar besides knowledge and experience   x
Decision making Descriptions of how an expert makes decisions x x
Defining the expert Difficulty with Difficulty or inability to define “expert in anaesthesia” x  
Board certification Reference to the board certification and its relationship to expertise x x
Dexterity Manual dexterity x x
Crisis management skills Crisis management as core competence of the anaesthetist x x
Risk assessment Reference to assessing risk in patients   x
Intuition Mention of ‘intuition’, ‘7th sense’, ‘gut feeling’   x
Limitations of expertise Negative aspects of expertise   x
Teamwork Reference to the social/teamwork component of expertise   x
Nature or nurture Interaction of personal characteristics and contextual factors in the formation of an expert x x