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Table 3 Survey items where there were significant differences across pharmacy yearsa

From: Pharmacy students’ perspectives on the initial implementation of a teaching electronic medical record: results from a mixed-methods assessment

Survey ItemFirst year n (Mean Rank)Second year (n, Mean Rank)Third year (n, Mean Rank)Chi-Square (p-value)First year – Second yearSecond year – Third yearFirst year – Third year
Overall, about how often did you use the tEMR during the 2017–2018 academic year?47 (106.0)55 (76.8)53 (54.4)40.974 (p < .01)p < .01*p = .01*p < .01*
I have used the tEMR for the following medication-related activities.b47 (76.3)55 (98.9)54 (59.6)21.607 (p < .01)p = .03*p < .01*p = .18
Using the tEMR better prepares me for my APPEs/P4 professional year.47 (62.9)54 (76.8)53 (91.2)10.803 (p = .02)p = .32p = .25p < .01*
I have a generally favorable attitude toward using the tEMR for learning activities.46 (71.9)54 (68.2)53 (90.4)8.024 (p < .01)p = 1.00p = .02*p = .10
What is your age in years?46 (41.0)52 (76.2)53 (106.2)57.303 (p < .01)57.303 (p < .01)p < .01*p < .01*
What other EMR/EHR(s) have you been exposed to, if any? [Selected choice NONE vs. used at least 1 EHR.]47 (56.6)55 (67.6)54 (108.7)51.805 (p < .01)p = .46p < .01*p < .01*
About how much exposure have you had from these EMRs in total (from previous question)?47 (65.0)54 (66.6)53 (99.8)21.938 (p < .01)p = 1.00p < .01*p < .01*
  1. Abbreviations: APPE advanced pharmacy practice experiences, EHR electronic health record, EMR electronic medical record, P4 fourth year professional year, tEMR teaching electronic medical record
  2. *Significant difference between pharmacy class responses, p < 0.05
  3. aWhen appropriate, Chi-square or Kruskal-Wallis H tests were performed to determine any statistically significant difference across the three pharmacy classes’ demographics and survey responses. Total N = 156
  4. b “Select all that apply” question was transformed into a continuous variable with a minimum of 1 and maximum of 8