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Table 2 Methodological Quality of Included Studies

From: Leadership training programs in graduate medical education: a systematic review

StudyStudy DesignaSampling:
Institutionsb
Sampling:
Response Ratec
Type of DatadValidity: Internal structureeValidity: ContentfValidity: Relationship to other variablesgData analysis:
Sophisticationh
Data analysis:
Appropriatei
OutcomejMERSQI Score
Whitman, 1988 [13]11.51.51000111.58.5
Doughty et al., 1991 [14]11.50.510001117
Mygdal et al., 1991 [15]10.50.510001116
Evans et al., 1997 [16]11.50.510001117
Lee, Tse and Naguwa, 2004 [18]1.50.51.511002117.5
Stoller, et al., 2004 [19]11110001117
Crites and Schuster, 2004 [17]10.50.510001116
Hemer et al., 2007 [20]10.50.510001116
Stergiopoulos et al., 2009 [21]10.50.510001116
Kuo et al., 2010 [23]10.51.530001119
Pettit et al., 2011 [22]20.50.510002118
Brandon and Mullan, 2013 [24]10.50.510002117
Cole, et al., 2017 [25]10.51.510001117
Itri, et al., 2017 [26]10.51.510001117
Hill, et al., 2018 [27]10.51.510001117
  1. Legend: The MERSQI is a validated tool to appraise the quality of medical education research. The maximum score is 18, and is calculated as follows:
  2. a. Study design: Single group cross-sectional (1); single group pre- and post-test (1.5); nonrandomized, 2 group (2); randomized controlled experiment (3)
  3. b. Sampling: Single institution (0.5); 2 institutions (1); More than 2 institutions (1.5)
  4. c. Response rate: Not applicable (0); Response rate < 50% or not reported (0.5); Response rate 50–74% (1); Response rate > 75% (1.5)
  5. d. Type of data: Assessment by study subject (1); Objective measurement (3)
  6. e. Internal structure: Not reported/NA (0); Reported (1)
  7. f. Content: Not reported/NA (0); Reported (1)
  8. g. Relationships to other variables: Not reported/NA (0); Reported (1)
  9. h. Sophistication of analysis: Descriptive analysis only (1); Beyond descriptive analysis (2)
  10. i. Appropriateness of analysis: Inappropriate (0); Inappropriate (1)
  11. j. Outcome: Satisfaction, attitudes, perceptions (1); Knowledge, skills (1.5); Behaviors (2); Patient/health care outcome (3)