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Table 4 Sub-group analyses of communication skills in students’ self-perception

From: Communication skills of medical students: survey of self- and external perception in a longitudinally based trend study

Semester EmpathyStructureVerbal ExpressionNon-verbal Expression
2011: Mean (Median) [SD] 4.36 (5) [1.15]4.34 (5) [1.11]4.48 (5) [1.10]4.07 (4) [1.18]
2011–2012: Mean (Median) [SD] 4.21 (4) [1.08]4.25 (4) [1.14]4.25 (4) [1.16]3.92 (4) [1.02]
2012: Mean (Median) [SD] 4.43 (5) [1.21]4.45 (5) [1.10]4.51 (5) [1.32]3.97 (4) [1.09]
2012–2013: Mean (Median) [SD] 4.04 (4) [1.18]4.12 (4) [1.39]4.15 (5) [1.19]3.95 (4) [1.26]
2013: Mean (Median) [SD] 4.36 (4) [1.01]4.37 (4) [1.00]4.36 (4) [1.04]4.22 (4) [1.08]
2013–2014: Mean (Median) [SD] 4.59 (5) [1.16]4.52 (5) [1.17]4.61 (5) [1.28]4.25 (4) [1.12]
2014: Mean (Median) [SD] 4.45 (5) [1.12]4.50 (5) [1.11]4.43 (5) [1.10]4.32 (4) [1.17]
2011–2014/ overall: Mean (Median) [SD] 4.37 (5) [1.15]4.38 (5) [1.14]4.41 (5) [1.19]4.11 (4) [1.14]
 Difference between 2011 and 2014−0.08 [95%-CI: −0.34; 0.16]− 0.17 [95%-CI: − 0.41; 0.08]0.047 [95%-CI: − 0.2; 0.29]−0.25 [95%-CI: − 0.51; 0.01]
 p-value (differences between 2011 and 2014)0.49720.18730.70390.0618
 Levene’s testp = 0.257p = < 0.0001p = 0.40p = 0.40
 ANOVA (all semester cohorts)F (6; 1020) = 2793F (6; 2035) =3900F (6; 1022) = 2184F (6; 1020) = 3038a
 ANOVA, p-value0.110.0010.420.006a
 Students with anamnesis group
(n = 258): Mean (Median) [SD]
4.46 (1.12) [5]4.51 (1.10) [5]4.42 (1.18) [5]4.21 (1.17) [4]
 Control group
(n = 726): Mean (Median) [SD]
4.34 (1.16) [5]4.33 (1.08) [4.5]4.40 (1.19) [5]4.08 (1.12) [4]
 p-value (differences between anamnesis group and control group)0.120.02a0.810.13
  1. a statistically significant difference