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Table 2 Medical students’ perceived training stress and professional quality of life during their individual specialty rotations (n = 1073)

From: Medical students’ resilience: a protective role on stress and quality of life in clerkship

VariableMean (Freq.)SD (%)Confirmatory factor analysesb
Regression estimation lambdaCritical ratio (CR)Squared multiple correlation
Workplace training stress
Psychological demands (scale 1–5)2.6960.883   
  Hard work2.5461.016092827.7370.696
  Fast-paced work environment2.7541.0890.96826.7300.660
  Busy at work2.5561.045093129.0410.664
  Not enough sleeping time2.5841.122097229.3940.626
  Work fatigue2.5891.1451.000(Constrained)0.637
 Intense work concentration3.1451.0310.71821.2270.405
Physical demands (scale 1–5)1.8100.819   
  Awkward arm position1.8020.8670.96565.1120.929
  Awkward body position1.8430.9211.000(Constrained)0.883
  Rapid physical activity1.8700.9130.90545.3070.736
  Lifting a heavy load1.7250.8460.79639.7720.663
Professional quality of life in the rotated specialtiesa
Burnout (scale 1–5)2.3460.613   
  I have beliefs that sustain me. (R)2.3310.9670.98937.8220.758
  I am the person I always wanted to be. (R)2.1880.9801(Constrained)0.754
  I feel trapped by my job as a medical doctor.2.3120.9250.63519.4110.342
  I am happy. (R)2.3210.7590.58722.9730.433
  I feel overwhelmed because my work load seems endless.2.2610.9270.53115.7940.238
  I am a very caring person. (R)2.6090.9900.83527.5750.515
  I feel connected to others. (R)2.1720.8440.62522.3880.398
  I feel worn out because of my work as a medical doctor.2.6751.0290.42410.9160.123
  I feel “bogged down” by the system.2.6701.0260.3809.8030.099
  I am not as productive at work because I am losing sleep over traumatic experiences of a person I help.1.9150.8290.2979.5520.093
Compassion satisfaction (scale 1–5)3.5050.815   
  I am proud of what I can do to help.3.4560.9851(Constrained)0.791
  My work makes me feel satisfied.3.5980.9480.94942.2490.769
  I am happy that I chose to do this work.3.5790.9580.95241.5640.758
  I like my work as a medical doctor.3.6370.9450.93841.3700.756
  I have happy thoughts and feelings about those I help and how I could help them.3.7510.9250.91841.6680.756
  I believe I can make a difference through my work.3.5180.9710.95841.5000.747
  I am pleased with how I am able to keep up with helping techniques and protocols.3.5460.9910.95339.0620.711
  I get satisfaction from being able to help people.3.5610.8770.83838.3090.700
  I feel invigorated after working with those I help.3.6630.9490.90738.5340.702
  I have thoughts that I am a “success” as a medical doctor.2.7440.9610.69924.5020.407
  1. aThe word ‘medical doctor’ replaces the original ‘helper’ in the Chinese-language ProQOL, Version V [25], to better match the medical students’ scenarios. (R) refers to reversing the original score from 1 to 5, 2 to 4, 4 to 2, and 5 to 1
  2. bOverall model fit: (1) psychological demands according to Bollen-Stine χ2 = 12.137, df = 9, Normed Chi-sqr (χ2/df) = 1.349, GFI = 0.997, AGFI = 0.993, CFI = 0.999, IFI = 0.999, TLI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.018, and Hoelter’s N = 808.732; (2) physical demands according to Bollen-Stine χ2 = 5.504, df = 2, Normed Chi-sqr (χ2/df) = 2.752, GFI = 0.999, AGFI = 0.994, CFI = 0.999, IFI = 0.999, TLI = 0.998, RMSEA = 0.040, and Hoelter’s N = 418.776; (3) burnout according to Bollen-Stine χ2 = 1518.578, df = 35, Normed Chi-sqr (χ2/df) = 43.388, GFI = 0.694, AGFI = 0.519, CFI = 0.698, IFI = 0.699, TLI = 0.612, RMSEA = 0.199, and Hoelter’s N = 25.810; and (4) compassion satisfaction according to Bollen-Stine χ2 = 50.530, df = 35, Normed Chi-sqr (χ2/df) = 1.444, GFI = 0.995, AGFI = 0.993, CFI = 0.999, IFI = 0.999, TLI = 0.998, RMSEA = 0.020, and Hoelter’s N = 746.605