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Table 1 Categories of teacher questions and student responses

From: Teacher questions and student responses in case-based learning: outcomes of a video study in medical education

Coding schemeValuesBrief descriptionExample from the coded material
Teacher questions
 Didactically irrelevant teacher questions (unrelated to the learning goals of the seminar)
  0. Didactically irrelevant questions0.1 Organizational questions… are focused upon aspects of seminar organization“Do you need my signature to confirm you have attended the seminar?”
0.2 Comprehension questions… contain a request directed towards a student to repeat a statement which the teacher hasn’t understood properly (e.g. due to noise in the classroom).“I somehow didn’t hear you. Can you please say that again?”
 Didactically relevant questions (related to the learning goals of the seminar)
  1. Type of questions1.1 Initial Questions… are teacher questions related to the case discussed in the seminar. These questions do not build upon a question posed right before.“Which diagnostic procedures would you apply at this point?”
1.2 Follow-up questions… build upon a previous student response and/or an initial question(Relating to the previous example)
“In which sequence would you apply these diagnostic procedures?”
  2. Openness of questions2.1 Open questions… are not supposed to elicit one specific correct answer from students. They provide degrees of freedom to students to elaborate their thoughts.“Do we already have all the information we need or is there anything we still need to know?”
2.2 Closed questions… have only one (or very few) correct answers the teacher intends to elicit from students.“If you examine a patients’ x-ray image – what is the first thing you need to look at?”
  3. Cognitive level of questions3.1 Reproduction questions… focus upon information students should be familiar with (e.g. from previous courses) and need to be remembered to answer the question.“What is the MCH value, what does it tell you?”
3.2 Elaboration questions… require combining, interpreting, or weighing information to elaborate and explain issues.“Can your elaborate which diagnostic strategy makes more sense at this point?”
Student responses to teacher questions
 4. Type of student responses4.1 Organizational statements… concern aspects of seminar organization(In response to teacher question exemplified above, category 0.1)
“Yes, we need your signature on this form here.”
4.2 Questions… posed in response to a teacher question. (Questions which are related to organizational aspects are coded as 4.1.)“Do I know the history of the patient?”
4.3 Reproductive statements… are contributions in which basic knowledge (e.g., from pre-clinical medical education) is reiterated (facts, numbers, or brief explanations).(In response to teacher question exemplified above, category 3.1)
“MCH means mean corpuscular haemoglobin, I think it’s about how much haemoglobin is in a red blood cell.”
4.4 Elaboration / Reasoning statements… describe cause-effect or if-then relationships and considerations relevant for
clinical decision making.
“One reason for constant thirst could be excretion problems. We should check the respective lab parameters to see whether his kidneys work properly.”
4.5 Non-responseNo student answer to a teacher question is given