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Table 1 Description of the articles in the integrative review

From: Medical education trends for future physicians in the era of advanced technology and artificial intelligence: an integrative review

Author (year)CountryStudy designTitle of programLearnersObjectives of programDuration of programLocation of educationLearning resourcesOutcomes of programQuality of study
Shield et al. (2011) [21]USADescriptive studySchwartz Communication Sessions1st- and 2nd-year MSTo improve communication skills2 yearsSchoolPatients, families, and the health care teamEagerness to learn practical ways to communicate with patients in real lifeGood
Solomon et al. (2011) [22]CanadaDescriptive studyProfessional Competencies Course1st- and 2nd-year MSTo raise awareness of inter-professional care in the home2 terms (final term of 1st year and first term of 2nd year)Patients’ homesClinical preceptors from different professionsA greater understanding of the patients’ perspective and determinants of health; an appreciation of the importance of collaborationGood
de Boer et al. (2011) [23]NetherlandsExperimental studyReal patient learning practicals3rd-year MSTo demonstrate in practice the theory and to make students aware of the impact of a disease on patients’ lives3 weeksSchoolReal patientsEarly contextualizing of the theory, better memorizing of clinical pictures, and deep understanding of the impact of the diseaseGood
Pelling et al. (2011) [24]SwedenDescriptive studyInter-professional training wardMS and other health profession studentsTo train students to become proficient in teamwork2 weeksOrthopedic wardPatients, clinical supervisors (nurse, PT, OT, orthopedic surgeon)A higher level of insight into their own and other professional roles, and the importance of teamwork within health careFair
Schillerstrom et al. (2012) [25]USADescriptive studyDeath-and-Dying Human Behavior Course1st-year MSTo improve students’ comfort with and knowledge of end-of-life issues2 h of lectures and 2 h of small-group activitiesSchoolFamily members of recently deceased loved ones and facultyMeaningful experience to decrease distress and improve end-of-life knowledge at an early pointFair
Hirsh et al. (2012) [26]USAExperimental studyHarvard Medical School–Cambridge Integrated Clerkship3rd-year MSTo learn the core skills of doctoring by following a panel of patients1 yearAmbulatory care settingSame patients and facultyRicher perspectives on the course of illness, more insight into social determinants of illness and recovery, and increased commitment to patientsGood
Woodard et al. (2012) [27]USADescriptive studyPrimary Care and Special Populations clerkship3rd-year MSTo be more competent and comfortable with people with disabilities12 weeksCommunity site, patient’s home, classroomPatients with physical or intellectual disabilitiesImproved knowledge, attitudes, and comfort in caring for people with disabilitiesFair
Teherani et al. (2013) [28]USAExperimental studyLongitudinal integrated clerkship3rd-year MSTo participate in the care of patients over time and develop learning relationships with clinicians1 yearLargely ambulatory settingSame patients, peers, and facultyStrengthening patient-centeredness and student-driven learning through continuity with patients, peers, and facultyGood
Chastonay et al. (2013) [29]SwitzerlandDescriptive studyCommunity immersion clerkship3rd-year MSTo be capable of working in and with the community and understand the communities their patients live in4–6 weeksCommunityCommunity health workers, community health institutions, and patients’ familiesResponding to the health problems of individuals in terms of their complexity and strengthening the ability to work with the communityGood
O’Neill et al. (2013) [30]USADescriptive studyEducation-Centered Medical Home (a longitudinal clerkship)1st–4th-year MSTo introduce the concepts and process of QI under the supervision of a preceptor1 yearOutpatient clinicsHigh-risk patients, preceptorsParticipating in firsthand health care quality measurement and identifying opportunities to improve the quality of patient careGood
Alamodi et al. (2014) [31]Saudi ArabiaDescriptive studyStudent-driven undergraduate research committeeMSTo promote, sustain and, improve undergraduate research environmentsWhole academic yearOn-campus, off-campusInternational or local researcherCapability to choose research areas of their own interest and develop basic skills in research conductFair
Warde et al. (2014) [32]USADescriptive studyLeadership course in UCLA PRIME Program1st-year MSTo foster leadership, advocacy, and resiliency3 weeksCommunityMedically underserved populationsImproved mindfulness and team relational coordinationFair
Sheline et al. (2014) [33]USADescriptive studyPrimary Care Leadership TrackMSTo provide the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to improve both health and future health care4 yearsCommunityFaculty, community health professionals, and patientsEngaging with the community and exploring solutions to address the health of the public and the future delivery of health careFair
Potash et al. (2014) [34]Hong KongExperimental studyArts-making workshop in a family medicine clerkship3rd-year MSTo develop empathic understanding of patients3 hClinicsFaculty as well as a qualified art therapistFostering meaningful reflection and greater self-awarenessGood
Kalen et al. (2015) [35]SwedenDescriptive studyLongitudinal mentoring programMSTo facilitate students’ professional and personal development5.5 yearsSchool, mentors’ clinicPhysician mentors, patientsImaging their future life as a physician and learning about the physician’s doings at an early stage of their educationGood
Ferguson et al. (2015) [36]USADescriptive studyQI and Patient Safety Scholarly Pathway1st–3rd year MSTo develop interest in gaining exposure to QI and patient safety concepts2 years with an optional third yearSchoolFaculty mentors, patients, and institutional, regional leadersIdentifying systems- and process-based errors, and practicing disclosing the error to the patient’s familyFair
Swanberg et al. (2015) [37]USADescriptive studyDiversity DialogueMSTo promote cultural competence and raise awareness of health care disparities3–4 dialogues (1.5 h in length) per yearSchoolMultidisciplinary team of librarians, faculty, and staffUnderstanding diverse perspectives from physicians, patients, and non-profit organizations, and raising awareness of health disparity issuesFair
Chou et al. (2016) [38]TaiwanExperimental studyInter-professional problem-based clinical ethics4th-year MS, 3rd-year nursing studentsTo balance their socialized viewpoints by seeing ethical dilemmas from others’ standpointsTwo 2-h tutorial sessionsSchoolProblem-based clinical ethicsRecognizing different viewpoints from other professionals, and realizing the need to know each other and collaborate on delivering care to patientsGood
Milford et al. (2016) [39]USADescriptive studyCollaboration with Head Start1st- and 2nd-year MSTo improve students’ attitudes, knowledge, and skills in health literacy2 h per week for 7 months (an academic year)CommunityHead Start populationTruly understanding the barriers created by poor health literacy and poverty, and effectively training in how to put the changed attitudes into actionGood
Chen et al. (2016) [40]USADescriptive studyMedical student–Faculty collaborative clinicsJunior (1st or 2nd year), Senior MS (3rd or 4th year)To engage in active experiential learning and systems-based practice training6 monthsClinicsPatient Visit Tracker (software), patients, attending physiciansBeing able to identify bottlenecks in the system, propose solutions, and then test the efficacy of their interventionsFair
Pettignano et al. (2017) [41]USADescriptive studyInterprofessional medical–legal education3rd-year MS, law studentsTo identify social determinants of health with potential legal solutions4 sessions (2 h in length per session)SchoolFaculty, staff attorneysUnderstanding the importance of identifying health-harming legal problems and of advocating for the inclusion of lawyers on care coordination teamsFair
van der Meulen et al. (2017) [42]NetherlandsDescriptive studyGender health issues in the Nijmegen medical curriculum1st–3rd-year MSTo learn about the effects of gender health issues in medical care8 courses (2–4 weeks per course)SchoolIntegrated gender perspective in the medical curriculumBeing aware of gender differences in biomedical and social contexts, and understanding the role of their own gender in their profession as doctorsFair
Mwenda (2012) [43]Kenya, SwedenDescriptive studyMoi–Linköping exchange programmeMS and other health professional studentsTo understand the differences in the health care system and enhance the global outlook to health6 weeks in Kenya, 12 weeks in SwedenAnother countryDifferent health care systemBroadening students’ learning platform and exposing them to cultural and health care organization diversityFair
Johnson et al. (2013) [44]USAExperimental studyVirtual patient simulators2nd-year MSTo practice diagnosis formulation of rare and complex medical conditionsOnline communityComputer-based clinical scenariosFacilitating student learning and engagement in team-based learning without risk of patient harmGood
Kaltman et al. (2015) [45]USAExperimental studyMotivational Interviewing Training in a family medicine clerkship3rd-year MSTo provide training in the widely dispersed student-preceptor placements4 weeksClinics, online communityOnline learning communityEnhancing students’ learning by providing a video recording of a live patient encounter and individualized feedback without a burden on faculty timeGood
O’Donovan et al. (2015) [46]UK, MalaysiaDescriptive studyDistant peer-tutoring of clinical skills2nd-year MS from Malaysia and 4th-year MS from UKTo facilitate peer-to-peer tutoring in clinical skills between students in two different countries3 weeksOnline communityDistant peer tutor, online learning communityEncouraging active learning and building a strong rapport using a low-cost, time efficient, and easily accessible education tool in resource-limited settingsGood
Ma et al. (2016) [47]GermanyDescriptive studyMagic mirrorMSFor anatomy education through personalized and interactive augmented realityE-learningAugmented realityFacilitating autonomous and interactive learning by close-to-reality presentation without using laboratory materials and costsFair
Keynejad et al. (2016) [48]UK, SomalilandDescriptive studyPeer-to-peer e-learning3rd-year UK, 3rd–5th-year Somaliland MSTo strengthen health care systems in low- and middle-income countries through mutual exchangeTen times for 1 hE-learningE-learning, peer tutorCreating low-cost opportunities for cross-cultural learning in restricted medical education and health care resourcesGood
  1. MS Medical students, PT Physiotherapist, OT Occupational therapist, UCLA PRIME program University of California at Los Angeles Program in Medical Education program, QI Quality improvement