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Table 5 Results of univariate (unadjusted) analysis for factors associated with a high level of knowledge regrading CRC risk factors and screening among medical students (N = 581)

From: Knowledge, attitude, and perceived barriers regarding colorectal cancer screening practices and risk factors among medical students in Saudi Arabia

VariableOR95% CIP-Value
Participant characteristics
  < 22 (Ref)*1.00  
 22–232.211.45–3.36< 0.001
  > 230.940.59–1.520.871
Medical school year
 4th (Ref)*1.00  
 5th2.291.54–3.40< 0.001
 6th2.671.75–4.07< 0.001
 Male (Ref)*1.00  
 College1 (Ref)*1.00  
 College22.051..45–2.88< 0.001
Attitude towards CRC **
 Poor (Ref) *1.00 < 0.001
Reported Barriers (Ref: barrier non-existent)
 Patient fear of finding cancer0.700.55–0.8980.005
 Patient believes screening is not effective0.900.717–1.1220.34
 Patient embarrassment/anxiety of screening0.490.382–0.6300.001
 Patient does not perceive CRC** as a serious health threat0.730.588–0.9060.004
 Patient has no symptoms of a health problem0.580.471–0.737< 0.001
 Patient lack of knowledge about colorectal cancer0.440.339–0.576< 0.001
 Patient procrastinates the procedure0.780.619–0.9910.047
 Screening costs too much or insurance doesn’t cover0.750.596–0.9610.023
 Lack of recommendations for screening in primary care0.600.480–0.765< 0.001
 Shortage of trained providers to conduct screening other than FOBT***0.610.485–.0777< 0.001
 Shortage of trained providers to conduct follow-up with invasive endoscopic procedures0.470.367–0.618< 0.001
 Lack of knowledge about colorectal cancer guidelines0.900.721–1.120.371
  1. *Ref Reference category, **CRC Colorectal Cancer, FOBT Fecal Occult Blood Test