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Table 2 The CFA analysis for the modified Approaches to Learning Medicine (mALM) questionnaire. (N = 272)

From: To examine the associations between medical students’ conceptions of learning, strategies to learning, and learning outcome in a medical humanities course

Construct and Measurement ItemsFactor loadingt Statistics
(p Value)
CRAVEAlpha Value
Deep Strategy (DS)
Mean = 3.07, SD = 0.52
0.950.790.88
 DS 1 (1)0.68
 DS 3 (3)0.9113.34
p < .01
 DS 4 (4)0.9213.48
p < .01
 DS 5 (5)0.7811.71
p < .01
 DS 7 (7)0.629.54
p < .01
Surface Strategy (SS)
Mean = 1.88, SD = 0.75
0.770.520.73
 SS 2 (10)0.75
 SS 3 (11)0.758.88
p < .01
 SS 4 (12)0.597.88
p < .01
  1. Abbreviation List: CFA Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CR Composite Reliability, AVE Average Variance Extracted, DS Deep Strategy, SS Surface Strategy