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Table 2 DREEM and happiness scores by demographic characteristics (univariate analysis)

From: The relationship between students’ perception of the educational environment and their subjective happiness

Variables SPLSPTSASPSPASSSPDREEM ScoreSubjective Happiness
All participants Mean (SD) 2.18 (0.52)2.59 (0.49)2.37 (0.71)2.31 (0.49)2.31 (0.51)2.34 (0.44)6.61 (1.99)
AgeCorrelationa)0.2240.1950.3320.0920.0420.226−0.003
p-value0.0010.003< 0.0010.170.529< 0.0010.97
Gender
Mean (SD)
Male2.18 (0.51)2.58 (0.49)2.33 (0.61)2.37 (0.50)2.35 (0.46)2.35 (0.43)6.71 (2.03)
Female2.17 (0.49)2.63 (0.49)2.37 (0.52)2.24 (0.46)2.26 (0.58)2.33 (0.41)6.61 (1.90)
p-valueb)0.9120.4390.6270.0660.260.670.71
Phase
Mean (SD)
12.08 (0.57)2.52 (0.54)2.07 (0.58)2.28 (0.50)2.31 (0.52)2.24 (0.45)6.68 (2.14)
22.19 (0.51)2.64 (0.50)2.45 (0.89)2.30 (0.52)2.24 (0.54)2.35 (0.46)6.33 (2.06)
32.30 (0.42)2.63 (0.41)2.66 (0.43)2.37 (0.45)2.38 (0.46)2.46 (0.36)6.83 (1.65)
F(p-value) c)3.599 (0.029)1.579 (0.208)16.723 (< 0.001)0.739 (0.479)1.432 (0.241)5.087 (0.007)1.233 (0.293)
Post-hoc c)1 < 3 1 < 2,3  1 < 3 
Eta-squared0.030 0.124  0.041 
Previous Year GPACorrelation a)0.0950.0540.2160.1630.1670.1670.197
p-value0.2090.4770.0040.0310.0270.0270.010
  1. a) Pearson correlation; b) Independent sample t-test; c) Tukey’s HSD test was used to analyze data with equal variance 
  2. Abbreviation: SASP Students’ Academic Self-Perceptions, SPA Students’ Perceptions of Atmosphere, SPL Students’ Perception of Learning, SPT Students’ Perception of Teaching, SSSP Students’ Social Self-Perceptions