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Table 1 Problematic Items (mean score ≤ 2) in subscales of Learning environment before interventions (2011)

From: Improving students’ learning environment by DREEM: an educational experiment in an Iranian medical sciences university (2011–2016)

I: students’ perceptions of learning
23. The atmosphere is relaxed during lectures
24. The teaching time is put to good use
37. The teachers give clear examples
12. The school is well-timetabled
7. The teaching is often stimulating
IV: students’ perceptions of atmosphere
32. The teachers provide constructive criticism here
13. The teaching is student-centered
II: students’ perceptions of teachers
50. The students irritate the teachers
8. The teachers ridicule the student
9. The teachers are authoritarian
48. The teaching is too teacher-centered
35. I find the experience disappointing
25. The teaching over-emphasizes factual learning
V: students’ academic self-perceptions
28. I seldom feel lonely
46. My accommodation is pleasant
17. Cheating is a problem in this school
III: students’ social self-perceptions
3. There is a good support system for students who get stressed
6. The teachers are patient with patients
14. I am rarely bored on this course