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Table 2 Agreement, over- and underestimation of students with tutor in the assessment of the left ventricle

From: Image quality to estimate ventricular ejection fraction by last year medical students improves after short courses of training

  Global Echocardiography Image Quality Complete Representation of Left Ventricle Representation of the Cardiac Apex in the Top of the Ultrasound Sector Segmental Analysis of Left Ventricular Walls Ejection Fraction of Left Ventricle
“Eye-Balling” Calculated [ordinally scaled]
Examination Agreement, Over- and Underestimation of Students with Professional [%]
1 64.0 36.0 0.0 72.0 24.0 4.0 88.0 8.0 4.0 94.0 2.0 4.0 88.0 8.0 4.0 60.0 40.0 0.0
2 68.0 32.0 0.0 80.0 20.0 0.0 76.0 24.0 0.0 95.3 0.7 4.0 80.0 16.0 4.0 60.0 32.0 8.0
3 84.0 16.0 0.0 96.0 4.0 0.0 92.0 8.0 0.0 97.3 1.3 1.3 84.0 8.0 8.0 52.0 24.0 24.0
4 76.0 24.0 0.0 92.0 8.0 0.0 96.0 4.0 0.0 93.3 6.0 0.7 84.0 12.0 4.0 52.0 36.0 12.0
5 72.0 28.0 0.0 92.0 8.0 0.0 92.0 8.0 0.0 92.7 2.7 4.7 76.0 16.0 8.0 56.0 24.0 20.0
6 76.0 24.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 88.0 12.0 0.0 92.0 4.0 4.0 64.0 16.0 20.0 56.0 24.0 20.0
7 80.0 16.0 4.0 80.0 20.0 0.0 88.0 12.0 0.0 90.0 5.3 4.7 76.0 4.0 20.0 60.0 20.0 20.0
8 76.0 24.0 0.0 96.0 4.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 99.3 0.7 0.0 80.0 16.0 4.0 84.0 8.0 8.0
9 95.8 4.2 0.0 95.8 4.2 0.0 95.8 4.2 0.0 93.7 0.7 5.6 91.7 0.0 8.3 70.8 25.0 4.2
10 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 96.4 0.0 3.6 95.7 0.0 4.3 91.3 4.3 4.3
Bias + 20.0% + 8.8% + 7.6% −0.009% + 1.1% + 11.7%
Spearman r 0.75 0.61 0.64 −0.006 0.16 0.62
p value 0.002 0.067 0.054 1.0 0.657 0.06
  1. Percentage agreement, over- and underestimation of students with the tutor in the presentation of the left heart in echocardiography and the assessment of left ventricular function in the course of ten examination blocks. Overestimation or positive bias means poorer global image quality, more often insufficient representation of left ventricle, more frequent lack representation of the cardiac apex in the top of the ultrasound sector or a worse judged wall movement by the student compared to the tutor, underestimation or negative bias the opposite. Spearman r and p-value were calculated from the correlation between the examination number and the agreement between student and tutor