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Table 1 Key established characteristics of cultural safety and competence

From: Three zones of cultural competency: surface competency, bias twilight, and the confronting midnight zone

Term Characteristics
Cultural safety • The person experiences that their culture is respected
• The person experiences culturally and linguistically appropriate services
• The person is supported to assert control over their own health and wellbeing. They make a decision and have the capacity to act on it
Cultural competence • Culturally and linguistically appropriate spaces are provided
• Culturally and linguistically appropriate services are provided
• The person utilises/demonstrates cultural and linguistic knowledge. In healthcare, this means the person promotes effective communication with patient and/or their family
• The person utilises/demonstrates conviction of culturally and linguistically diverse knowledge/values/beliefs
• The person identifies own biases and how biases could inform the way they treat others; then adjusts thoughts/language/behaviour to minimise influence of their inherent biases on others
• The person demonstrates capacity for action to support culturally and linguistically diverse people, and to reduce inequity and inequality. In healthcare, this means the person provides equitable quality of care.
  1. Table 1 details: the characteristics for this table are based on a synthesis of relevant literature [27, 18, 17, 28, 29, 15, 30]