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Table 2 Attitude and Beliefs about Vaccines by Healthcare Professional Program (N = 223)

From: Immunization attitudes, opinions, and knowledge of healthcare professional students at two Midwestern universities in the United States

  BSN positive responsesa
n = 84
n (%)
DNP positive responsesa
n = 14
n (%)
Medicine positive responsesa
n = 75
n (%)
Pharmacy positive responsesa
n = 52
n (%)
Fisher’s exact test
p – valueb
Assessing Education
 Program includes adequate training and/or education in:
  Vaccine preventable diseases 76 (90.5) 14 (100) 73 (97.3) 51 (98.1) 0.504
  How vaccines work 67 (79.8) 13 (92.9) 72 (96.0) 49 (94.2) 0.046*
  The safety of vaccinesc 68 (82.9) 14 (100) 68 (91.9) 50 (96.2) 0.203
  Vaccine testing and approval processd 47 (56.6) 9 (64.3) 49 (65.3) 39 (75.0) 0.418
  How to communicate with vaccine-hesitant caregivers 60 (71.4) 13 (92.9) 55 (73.3) 40 (76.9) 0.646
Measuring Hesitancy
 Routine childhood vaccines are safec 77 (92.8) 14 (100) 72 (97.3) 50 (98.0) 0.524
 Protective benefits obtained from vaccinating outweigh the risks that may occur as a result of vaccinatingd 78 (95.1) 14 (100) 72 (97.3) 50 (98.0) 0.973
 Vaccines are effective way to prevent many different diseasesc 80 (96.4) 14 (100) 72 (97.3) 50 (98.0) 0.722
 The current # of recommended childhood vaccines places an undue burden on a child’s immune systeme 26 (34.2) 3 (23.1) 3 (4.3) 4 (8.5) < 0.0001*
Measuring Likelihood to Recommend Vaccines
 Caregivers should have influence over what vaccines are given to their childrend 49 (59.0) 5 (35.7) 26 (35.1) 20 (39.2) 0.028*
 Spreading out recommended vaccines over several visits is an acceptable approach to reducing parental stress about vaccinatingd 45 (54.2) 9 (64.3) 35 (47.3) 23 (45.1) 0.856
 State/local vaccination requirements for school/daycare entry are important tools for reducing vaccine preventable diseases in the communityd 78 (94.0) 14 (100) 70 (94.6) 50 (98.0) 0.888
 Caregivers should have the right to request non-medical exemptions from state/local vaccination requirements for school entrye 27 (32.9) 2 (14.3) 17 (23.0) 6 (11.8) 0.022*
 As a HCP, I believe that I am responsible for advocating the benefit of vaccines and educating patients on the diseases they prevente 78 (95.1) 14 (100) 72 (97.3) 51 (100) 0.878
 As a HCP, I believe that my strong recommendation for a vaccination will impact a patient’s decision on whether or not to vaccinatee 73 (89.0) 13 (92.9) 62 (83.8) 50 (98.0) 0.148
 Getting my annual influenza vaccine is important to med 55 (66.3) 13 (92.9) 64 (86.5) 37 (72.5) 0.062
 It is important to engage/encourage HCP to be immunized annually against influenzad 64 (77.1) 13 (92.9) 66 (89.2) 42 (82.4) 0.511
  1. aPositive responses: Somewhat Agree and Strongly Agree Likert scale responses were collapsed
  2. bFisher exact test was used for analysis with an alpha = 0.05
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. cBSN n = 82
  5. dBSN n = 83
  6. eBSN n = 76, DNP n = 13, Medicine n = 70, Pharmacy n = 47