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Table 2 Things to consider for optimal effectiveness when developing and administering a student bullying intervention

From: Interventions addressing student bullying in the clinical workplace: a narrative review

1. Understand bullying catalysts
 a) Understand what might cause or catalyse student bullying in a workplace, e.g. resource constraints
 b) Be aware of potential personal issues for staff for whom the intervention is intended
e.g. lack of specific training in teaching skills
 c) Tailor the intervention to take these into account (at least)
2. Staff need: an interventionist to understand what they do, a relationship with the interventionist, and their adult learning requirements addressed.
 a) Understand what staff do and ensure the intervention is easily accessible to them
 b) Ensure the intervention method allows a functional and supportive relationship between staff and interventionist to be established
 c) Teach staff in ways that adults are more likely to learn (active learning) especially if values issues need to be addressed
3. Policy: necessary but not sufficient
 a) Ensure policy about behaviour is up to date and clearly explicates the complaints process
 b) Ensure policy remit includes staff on adjunct contracts
 c) Ensure staff know about policy and understand how to use it
 d) Ensure management are skilled in managing policy/complaint processes and offer support to each employee involved in a complaint
 e) Ensure that potential student/staff bullying is addressed in another way, asides from implementing policy or process, ideally proactively
4. No targeting specific groups, and aim for saturation
 a) Include diverse staff groups in the intervention and frame it in ways to avoid targeting staff groups/specific people/specific behaviour
 b) Include as many staff as possible (may require several interventions)
5. Frame the intervention to improve behaviour, not eradicate bad behaviour
 a) Ensure the intervention has a positive, relevant topic/content focused on upskilling
 b) Ensure management overtly support the intervention and participate
 c) Ensure staff are offered long term support in enacting new skills and changing workplace culture
6. Interventionist teaching and facilitation skills matter
 a) Ensure the interventionist is skilled in teaching with active learning processes
 b) Ensure the interventionist is knowledgeable of how the clinical workplace functions
 c) Ensure the interventionist is aware of the need to keep information confidential