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Table 1 Data Extraction: Interventional Studies which reported an outcome

From: Barriers and facilitators to writing quality items for medical school assessments – a scoping review

Authors Intervention Type Setting Population Study Design Outcome Reference
Abdulghani HM, Ahmad F, Irshad M, Khalil MS, Al-Shaikh GK, Syed S, Aldrees AA, Alrowais N, Haque S Two day workshop Saudi Arabia, 2014 Single group, medical faculty Pre-test, Post-test (Quasi experimental) Statistically significant improvements in difficulty levels and Bloom’s cognitive levels of items post-intervention. Abdulghani HM, Ahmad F, Irshad M, Khalil MS, Al-Shaikh GK, Syed S, et al. Faculty development programs improve the quality of Multiple Choice Questions items’ writing. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9556.
Malau-Aduli BS, Zimitat C Peer review Australia, 2012 Single group, medical faculty Pre-test, Post-test Statistically significant increases in functional distractors, item difficulty, discrimination index and point-biserial correlation. Malau-Aduli BS, Zimitat C. Peer review improves the quality of MCQ examinations. Assess Eval High Educ. 2012;37(8):919–31.
Naeem N, van der Vleuten C, Alfaris EA Week long workshop Pakistan, 2009 Single group, medical and nursing faculty Pre-test, Mid-test, Post-test (Quasi experimental) Statistically significant increase in mean scores of items according to a quality checklist. Naeem N, van der Vleuten C, Alfaris EA. Faculty development on item writing substantially improves item quality. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2012;17(3):369–76.
Shea JA, Poniatowski PA, Day SC, Langdon LO, LaDuca A, Norcini JJ Item modelling USA, 1992 Two novice item writers, single group Post-test Item modelling is an efficient method for producing good quality test items and is appealing to potential item writers. Shea JA, Poniatowski PA, Day SC, Langdon LO, LaDuca A, Norcini JJ. An adaptation of item modeling for developing test-item banks. Teach Learn Med. 1992;4(1):19–24.
Wallach PM, Crespo LM, Holtzman KZ, Galbraith RM, Swanson DB Committee review USA, 2002 Single group, medical faculty Pre-test, Post-test Statistically significant continuous improvement in Quality Assessment Scores (QAS) with the implementation of predetermined guidelines and a committee review process. Wallach PM, Crespo LM, Holtzman KZ, Galbraith RM, Swanson DB. Use of a committee review process to improve the quality of course examinations. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2006;11(1):61–8.
Iramaneerat C Three short workshops Thailand, 2012 Single group, clinical faculty Pre-test, post-test Statistically significant increase in post-test item discrimination. Workshops had high satisfaction ratings amongst clinical teachers. Iramaneerat C. The impact of item writer training on item statistics of multiple-choice items for medical student examination. Siriraj Med J. 2012;64(6):178–182.
Abdulghani HM, Irshad M, Haque S, Ahmad T, Sattar K, Khalil MS Longitudinal item writing workshops Saudi Arabia, 2015 Single group, medical faculty Longitudinal cohort study Improvement in item quality as determined through item analysis in each successive academic year after the implementation of item writing workshops. Abdulghani HM, Irshad M, Haque S, Ahmad T, Sattar K, Khalil MS. Effectiveness of longitudinal faculty development programs on MCQs items writing skills: A follow-up study. PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0185895.
Abozaid H, Park YS, Tekian A Peer review committee Saudi Arabia, 2013 Single group, medical faculty Retrospective cohort study Statistically significant improvement in item discrimination in medicine, paediatric and surgery examinations. Significant improvement in item difficulty only for the medicine examination. Abozaid H, Park YS, Tekian A. Peer review improves psychometric characteristics of multiple choice questions. Med Teach. 2017;39 Suppl 1:50–4.