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Table 4 Assessment of smoking habits according to family members’ smoking

From: Associations of smoking behavior with lifestyle and mental health among Japanese dental students

  Non-current smokers (%) Regular smokers (%) χ 2 p-value
Father
 Non-smoker or no father 330 (82.3) 35 (67.3)   
 Regular smoker 71 (17.7) 17 (32.7)   
    6.605 0.010a
Mother
 Non-smoker or no mother 383 (95.5) 47 (90.4)   
 Regular smoker 18 (4.5) 5 (9.6)   
    2.51 0.167b
Brother
 Non-smoker or no brother 371 (92.5) 45 (86.5)   
 Regular smoker 30 (7.5) 7 (13.5)   
    2.195 0.172b
Sister
 Non-smoker or no sister 396 (98.8) 51 (98.1)   
 Regular smoker 5 (1.2) 1 (1.9)   
    0.161 0.521b
  1. aChi-square test, bFisher’s exact test