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Table 3 Clinical characteristics and perineal status among primiparous women during the three study phases

From: Impact of electronic and blended learning programs for manual perineal support on incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries: a prospective interventional study

Characteristics Phase-1 (N = 195) P1 Phase-2 (N = 279) P2 Phase-3 (N = 256) P3
Age (years) 23 ± 4.0 0.040 24 ± 5.0 0.328 23 ± 5.0 0.306
Gestational age (weeks) 39 ± 1.5 0.333 39 ± 1.6 0.099 39 ± 2.0 0.022
BMI4
  < 18.5    
 18.5–24.99 46 (23.6) 0.543 67 (24.0) 0.171 49 (19.1) 0.471
 25–29.99 99 (50.8) 131 (47.0) 141 (55.1)
  ≥ 30 45 (23.1) 77 (27.6) 64 (25.0)
 Missing 5 (2.6) 4 (1.4) 2 (0.8)
Method of vaginal birth
 Spontaneous 184 (94.4) 0.166 253 (90.7) 0.146 241 (94.1) > 0.999
 Vacuum 11 (5.6) 26 (9.3) 15 (5.9)
Fetal presentation
 Cephalic 193 (99.0) > 0.999 277 (99.3) 0.433 252 (98.4) 0.703
 Breech 1 (0.5) > 0.999 2 (0.7) 0.433 4 (1.6) 0.395
 Occiput posterior 1 (0.5) 0.411 0.433 0.432
Onset of labor
 Spontaneous 161 (82.6) 0.447 222 (79.6) 0.040 221 (86.3) 0.292
 Induced 34 (17.4) 57 (20.4) 35 (13.7)
Second stage duration (minutes)
  < 30 104 (53.3) < 0.001 94 (33.7) 0.174 105 (41.0) 0.009
 30–59 62 (31.8) 78 (28.0) 81 (31.6)
  ≥ 60 22 (11.3) 72 (25.8) 53 (20.7)
 Missing 7 (3.6) 35 (12.5) 17 (6.6)
Birthweight (grams)
  < 3000 53 (27.2) 0.317 93 (33.3) 0.161 84 (32.8) 0.102
 3000–4399 85 (43.6) 118 (42.3) 121 (47.3)
 3500–3999 47 (24.1) 51 (18.3) 45 (17.6)
  ≥ 4000 10 (5.1) 17 (6.1) 6 (2.3)
Intact Perineum 35 (18.0) 0.057 71 (25.4) 0.023 89 (34.8) < 0.001
Episiotomy 126 (64.6) 0.011 147 (52.7) 0.002 101 (39.5) < 0.001
First degree tear 17 (8.7) 0.751 27 (9.7) 0.334 32 (12.5) 0.224
Second degree tear 31 (15.9) 0.396 53 (19.0) 0.018 71 (27.7) 0.003
OASIS5 31 (15.9) 0.346 35 (12.5) 0.028 17 (6.6) 0.002
  1. • Differences were assessed for each pair of the study phases
  2. • Categorical data were presented by n/N (%), and continuous variables by mean ± SD
  3. • Differences were assessed by independent t-test for continuous variables and Pearson- Pearson-χ2 test or Fisher’s Exact test (for cells with counts< 5) for categorical variables.
  4. • P1; difference between phase-1 and phase-2, P2; difference between phase-2 and phase-3, P3; difference between phase-1 and phase-3.
  5. • BMI4; body mass index = maternal weight in kilograms/(height in meters)2
  6. • OASIS5; obstetric anal sphincter injuries.