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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and perineal status of study population during the three study phases

From: Impact of electronic and blended learning programs for manual perineal support on incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries: a prospective interventional study

Characteristics Phase-1 (N = 376) Phase-2 (N = 626) Phase-3 (N = 692) P1
Age (years) 25 ± 5.0 26 ± 5.6 27 ± 5.7 < 0.001
Gestational age 39.0 ± 1.6 39.0 ± 1.8 39 ± 1.8 0.597
BMI2
  < 18.5  
 18.5–24.99 66 (17.6) 116 (18.5) 129 (18.6) 0.887
 25–29.99 198 (52.7) 313 (50.0) 346 (50.0)
  ≥ 30 105 (27.9) 190 (30.4) 210 (30.3)
 Missing 7 (1.9) 7 (1.1) 7 (1.0)
 Primiparous women 195 (51.9) 279 (44.6) 256 (37.0) < 0.001
 Parous women 181 (48.1) 347 (55.4) 436 (63.0)
Method of vaginal birth
 Spontaneous 363 (96.5) 587 (93.8) 671 (97.0) 0.011
 Vacuum 13 (3.5) 39 (6.2) 21 (3.0)
Fetal presentation
 Cephalic 373 (99.2) 619 (98.9) 685 (99.0) 0.663
 Breech 2 (0.5) 7 (1.1) 6 (0.9)
 Occiput posterior 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)
Onset of labor
 Spontaneous 328 (87.2) 513 (82.0) 605 (87.4) 0.010
 Induced 48 (12.8) 113 (18.0) 87 (12.6)
Second stage duration (minutes)
  < 30 256 (68.1) 332 (53.0) 432 (62.4) < 0.001
 30–59 82 (21.8) 150 (24.0) 161 (23.3)
  ≥ 60 22 (5.9) 81 (12.9) 64 (9.2)
 Missing 16 (4.3) 63 (10.1) 35 (5.1)
Birthweight (grams)
  < 3000 86 (22.9) 170 (27.2) 174 (25.1) 0.848
 3000–3499 172 (45.7) 269 (43.0) 309 (44.7)
 3500–3999 93 (24.7) 145 (23.2) 167 (24.1)
  ≥ 4000 25 (6.6) 42 (6.7) 42 (6.1)
Intact Perineum 152 (40.4) 325 (52.0) 426 (61.6) < 0.001
Episiotomy 134 (35.6) 166 (26.5) 124 (18.0) < 0.001
First degree tear 42 (11.2) 85 (13.6) 93 (13.4) 0.492
Second degree tear 54 (14.4) 72 (11.5) 98 (14.2) 0.276
OASIS3 46 (12.2) 42 (6.7) 22 (3.2) < 0.001
  1. • Categorical data were presented by n/N (%), and continuous variables by mean ± SD
  2. • P1; differences were assessed by One-Way-ANOVA test for continuous variables and Pearson-χ2 test or Fisher’s Exact test (for cells with counts< 5) for categorical variables.
  3. • BMI2; body mass index = maternal weight in kilograms/(height in meters)2
  4. • OASIS3; obstetric anal sphincter injuries.