Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 6 Pairwise Comparisons Test of Overall, Higher-order, and Lower-order Performances, and Instructional Efficiency Indices for Groups over Repeated Measures

From: Pure PBL, Hybrid PBL and Lecturing: which one is more effective in developing cognitive skills of undergraduate students in pediatric nursing course?

(I) Group (Instructional Strategies) (J) Group (Instructional Strategies) Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig.a
Overall Performance PPBL HPBL −1.427 2.216 .521
COTL 9.936* 2.136 .000
HPBL PPBL 1.427 2.216 .521
COTL 11.362* 2.136 .000
COTL PPBL −9.936* 2.136 .000
HPBL −11.362* 2.136 .000
Higher-order Performance PPBL HPBL −.6600 1.71917 .922
COTL 9.4333* 1.65664 .000
HPBL PPBL .6600 1.71917 .922
COTL 10.0933* 1.65664 .000
COTL PPBL −9.4333* 1.65664 .000
HPBL −10.0933* 1.65664 .000
Lower-order Performance PPBL HPBL −.767 .588 .196
COTL .502 .567 .378
HPBL PPBL .767 .588 .196
COTL 1.269* .567 .028
COTL PPBL −.502 .567 .378
HPBL −1.269* .567 .028
Instructional Efficiency Indices PPBL HPBL −.1695 .30386 .843
COTL 1.3153* .29281 .000
HPBL PPBL .1695 .30386 .843
COTL 1.4848* .29281 .000
COTL PPBL −1.3153* .29281 .000
HPBL − 1.4848* .29281 .000
  1. *The mean difference is significant at the .05 level
  2. aAdjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni