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Table 4 Means, SDs, and ANOVA for Overall, Higher-order, and Lower-order Performances, Mental Effort and Instructional Efficiency, on Delayed Posttest

From: Pure PBL, Hybrid PBL and Lecturing: which one is more effective in developing cognitive skills of undergraduate students in pediatric nursing course?

Measures Groups n Mean SD F df P
Overall Performance PPBL 30 30.70 9.32    
HPBL 30 32.95 8.68 32.82 2.92 .001
COTL 35 17.89 6.47    
Higher-order Performance PPBL 30 21.97 7.28    
HPBL 30 22.85 6.09 45.39 2.92 .001
COTL 35 10.14 4.76    
Lower-order Performance PPBL 30 8.73 2.30    
HPBL 30 10.10 2.82 7.62 2.92 .001
COTL 35 7.74 2.16    
Mental Effort PPBL 30 4.20 1.42    
HPBL 30 4.09 1.56 11.23 2.92 .001
COTL 35 5.58 1.30    
Instructional Efficiency PPBL 30 .48 1.22    
HPBL 30 .68 1.26 20.94 2.92 .001
COTL 35 −.99 .98