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Table 3 Means, SDs, and ANOVA for Mental Effort of assessment test, and Mental Effort and Instructional Efficiency of the Posttest

From: Pure PBL, Hybrid PBL and Lecturing: which one is more effective in developing cognitive skills of undergraduate students in pediatric nursing course?

Measures Groups N Mean SD F df P
Mental Effort of assessment test PPBL 30 3.86 1.35    
HPBL 30 3.71 1.16 5.67 2.92 .005
COTL 35 4.75 1.52    
Mental Effort of posttest PPBL 30 3.80 1.01    
HPBL 30 3.64 .87 13.69 2.92 .001
COTL 35 4.89 1.23    
Instructional Efficiency PPBL 30 .38 1.23    
HPBL 30 .52 1.12 10.88 2.92 .001
COTL 35 −.77 1.34