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Table 5 Summary results of subgroup

From: Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of team-based learning on medical education in China

  No. of studies SMD (95%CI) I 2 Heterogeneity P value Meta regression P value
Total 13 2.46 (1.53–3.40) 98.00% < 0.001  
Subgroup
 Education (No randomization) 11     0.073
 Undergraduate students 5 4.39 (3.92–4.87) 57.50% 0.052  
 Medical college students 6 1.47 (0.38–2.55) 97.10% < 0.001  
 Gender (Medical college students) 6     0.059
 Female 3 0.47 (0.24–0.70) 9.40% 0.332  
 Male+Female 3 2.50 (0.20–4.79) 98.20% < 0.001  
  1. SMD standardized mean difference, CI confidence interval;
  2. SMD (95%CI) random-effects model was used when P value for heterogeneity test ≤0.10 (Total, Undergraduate students, Medical college students, Male+Female); otherwise, fix-effects model was used (Female);
  3. Meta regression P value, represents the test for the significance of the effect modification across strata