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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of all dependent and independent variables, the secondary tier of medical care (STM) as a unit of analysis

From: Influence of Japan’s 2004 postgraduate training on ophthalmologist location choice, supply and distribution

  1998–2002 2006–2010 P c
Mean SDa 95% CIsb Mean SDa 95% CIsb
Number of ophthalmologists 36.40 57.36 [32.91 to 39.90] 34.60 55.05 [31.25 to 37.95] .47
Number of physicians other than ophthalmologists 749.60 1088.43 [683.31 to 815.89] 668.39 946.99 [610.72 to 726.07] .07
Number of physicians other than ophthalmologists and residentsd NA NA NA 707.69 1013.78 [645.94 to 769.43] NA
Ophthalmologists densitye 0.078 0.043 [0.076 to 0.081] 0.075 0.044 [0.072 to 0.077] .061
Density of physicians other than ophthalmologists f 1.77 0.81 [1.72 to 1.82] 1.62 0.76 [1.58 to 1.67] < .001
Density of physicians other than ophthalmologists and residentsd,g NA NA NA 1.69 0.74 [1.64 to 1.73] NA
Total population(in thousands) 364.20 399.50 [334.40 to 394.00] 367.20 417.70 [336.00 to 398.40] .89
Per capita income (in thousands)h 11.75 3.31 [11.51 to 12] 11.36 3.15 [11.12 to 11.59] .023
Percent of the population with a college-level education 10.81 5.25 [10.26 to 11.37] 11.92 5.39 [11.35 to 12.49] .006
Unemployment rate 4.06 1.19 [3.93 to 4.18] 5.78 1.50 [5.63 to 5.94] < .001
Percent of white-collar workers 14.42 2.40 [14.17 to 14.68] 13.96 2.25 [13.73 to 14.2] .010
SES composite Indexi − 0.02 1.02 [−0.13 to 0.09] 0.02 0.98 [−0.08 to 0.12] .59
Number of primary students/school 281.20 133.00 [271.3 to 291.1] 274.00 138.80 [263.7 to 284.4] .33
Crime rate 1.47 0.73 [1.42 to 1.52] 1.10 0.53 [1.06 to 1.14] < .001
Temperature (°C) 15.82 2.53 [15.3 to 16.34] 15.59 2.36 [15.10 to 16.07] .52
Humidity (%) 70.28 4.70 [69.31 to 71.25] 69.44 4.36 [68.54 to 70.33] .21
Discomfort Indexj 60.05 3.87 [59.25 to 60.84] 59.68 3.58 [58.94 to 60.41] .50
Hospital beds per 1000 population 13.89 4.75 [13.54 to 14.24] 13.89 4.62 [13.55 to 14.24] .99
  1. aStandard Deviation
  2. bConfidence Intervals
  3. cp-value of mean equality test
  4. dNumber of residents were unavailable prior to 2004
  5. eNumber of ophthalmologists per 1000 population
  6. fNumber of physicians other than ophthalmologists per 1000 population
  7. gNumber of physicians other than ophthalmologists and residents per 1000 population
  8. hJapanese yen was converted into US$ using the rate that applied in March 2013 of approximately 95 Japanese yen per US$
  9. iA composite index of socioeconomic indicators created from the percent of the population with a college-level education, percent of white-collar workers, the unemployment rate, and per capita income
  10. jCalculated by using temperature and humidity