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Table 3 Moderator analyses

From: Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: a meta-analysis

Moderator     95% CI
n SMD SE LL UL
For student equivalence
 No data provided 13 0.31 0.10 0.11 0.50
 No statistical difference (pretest, or other scores) 11 0.39 0.10 0.18 0.59
 Randomized assignment 4 0.28 0.18 −0.08 0.63
For instructor equivalence
 No data 17 0.23 0.08 0.07 0.39
 Different instructors 3 0.39 0.19 0.01 0.76
 Identical instructors 8 0.55 0.12 0.31 0.79
Research design
 Historical control 20 0.32 0.08 0.17 0.48
 Quasi-experiment 4 0.45 0.18 0.09 0.81
 Random 4 0.28 0.18 −0.08 0.63
Types of students
 Medicine 13 0.26 0.10 0.08 0.45
 Pharmacy 10 0.45 0.10 0.24 0.65
 Public health 2 0.40 0.29 −0.18 0.98
 Nursing 1 0.08 0.36 −0.62 0.79
 Dental 1 0.19 0.30 −0.39 0.78
 Chiropractic 1 0.29 0.39 −0.47 1.04
Availability of pre-class assessment/ exercise?
 No 17 0.25 0.08 0.09 0.41
 Yes 11 0.46 0.10 0.26 0.65
Availability of pre-class readings/ notes?
 No 18 0.35 0.08 0.19 0.51
 Yes 10 0.30 0.11 0.08 0.53
Availability of quiz at start of in-class?
 No 20 0.26 0.07 0.12 0.38
 Yes 8 0.56 0.11 0.34 0.78*
  1. n number of studies, SMD standardized mean difference, SE standard error, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, LL lower limit, UL upper limit, *p < 0.05