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Table 1 Study groups included in meta-analysis (n = 64 published in 51 articles)

From: How empathic is your healthcare practitioner? A systematic review and meta-analysis of patient surveys

Study Country Type of Providers N Providers % Female N Patients Mean (SD) consultation time (min) Mean CARE score (SD)
Aomatsu (2014) Japan Physicians/Primary Care 9 N/A 272 17.2 (14.3) 38.4 (8.6)
Attar (2012) India Physicians/Specialists N/A 1.00 53 N/A 29.4 (10.9)
Bikker (2005) UK Physicians/CAM 9 N/A 187 50.1 (14.0) 45.0 (7.0)
Bikker (2015) UK Nurses 17 N/A 774 13.0 (7.6) 45.9 (5.9)
Birhanu (2012) Ethiopia Mixed N/A N/A 768 6.3 (2.6) 31.3 (8.3)
Buecken (2012) Germany Physicians/Specialists N/A N/A 541 N/A 39.9 (9.1)
Chen (2015) Hong Kong Medical Students 158 0.39 9 15.0 (N/A) 35.8 (7.3)
Chung (2012) South Korea Physicians/CAM 1 0.00 143 5.0 (N/A) 38.0 (6.9)
Chung, Yip (2016) Hong Kong TCM practitioners N/A N/A 514 N/A 34.2 (8.1)
Fogarty (2013) Australia TCM practitioners 1 1.00 18 60.0 (N/A) 49.8 (0.6)
Fritzsche (2011a) China Physicians/Specialists 2 N/A 28 N/A 45.0 (5.2)
Fritzsche (2011b) China Physicians/Specialists 5 N/A 37 N/A 36.7 (7.7)
Fritzsche (2011c) China Physicians/CAM 4 N/A 31 N/A 42.9 (7.3)
Fung (2009) Hong Kong Physicians/Primary Care 13 N/A 228 5.7 (3.9) 31.8 (8.9)
Griffin (2014a) UK Physicians/Primary Care N/A N/A 444 N/A 39.7 (9.9)
Griffin (2014b) UK Nurses N/A N/A 444 N/A 30.4 (9.5)
Gu (2015) Hong Kong N/A 332 N/A 332 N/A 31.0 (9.3)
Hanzevacki (2015) Croatia Physicians/Primary Care 8 N/A 568 6.8 (N/A) 35.9 (4.2)
Jani (2012) UK Physicians/Primary Care 47 N/A 163 9.5 (4.5) 43.8 (6.9)
Johnson (2012) UK Mixed 21 N/A 1103 N/A 45.2 (6.2)
Johnston (2015) UK Mixed 17 N/A 30 N/A 39.9 (8.7)
Joice (2010) UK Psychotherapist N/A N/A 141 N/A 39.0 (8.0)
Kersten (2012) UK TCM practitioners N/A N/A 213 N/A 42.2 (6.8)
Lafreniere (2015) US Physicians/Specialists 44 0.57 244 41.2 (23.4) 44.6 (6.7)
LaVela (2015) US Physicians/Specialists N/A N/A 389 N/A 40.1 (9.9)
Lee (2012) South Korea Physicians/CAM 1 0.00 110 N/A 36.0 (8.4)
Lelorain (2015) France Physicians/Specialists 28 N/A 201 26.0 (14.0) 38.4 (8.9)
MacPherson (2003) UK TCM practitioners N/A N/A 135 N/A 45.5 (6.7)
Menendez (2015) US Physicians/Specialists 4 N/A 112 11.0 (7.0) 46.0 (6.8)
Mercer (2004) UK Physicians/Primary Care N/A N/A 10 N/A 39.2 (10.8)
Mercer (2005) UK Physicians/Primary Care 26 N/A 3044 N/A 40.9 (8.8)
Mercer (2008a) UK Physicians/Primary Care 5 0.60 323 10.0 (N/A) 42.4 (8.1)
Mercer (2008b) UK Physicians/Specialists 31 N/A 1582 N/A 43.8 (6.6)
Mercer (2008c) UK Physicians/Specialists 25 N/A 1015 N/A 43.5 (7.4)
Mercer (2011) Hong Kong Physicians/Primary Care 20 0.30 984 5.5 (2.9) 34.6 (8.8)
Murphy (2013a) UK Allied health professionals N/A N/A 13 N/A 43.4 (7.4)
Murphy (2013b) UK Physicians/Primary Care N/A N/A 86 N/A 43.9 (7.6)
Neumann (2007) Germany Physicians/Specialists N/A N/A 326 N/A 37.1 (11.1)
Nezenega (2013) Ethiopia Mixed N/A N/A 531 7.1 (4.4) 35.9 (8.5)
Ohm (2013) Germany Medical Students 30 0.73 5 N/A 41.3 (6.3)
Parrish (2016) US Physicians/Specialists 5 N/A 112 10.0 (5.6) 43.0 (8.0)
Place (2016a) UK Allied health professionals   N/A 53 N/A 45.7 (5.1)
Place (2016b) UK Allied health professionals   N/A 217 N/A 46.3 (5.6)
Pollak (2015) US Physicians/Specialists 2 N/A 21 N/A 46.0 (4.2)
Price (2006) UK TCM practitioners 15 N/A 52 N/A 42.4 (6.9)
Price (2008) UK Physicians/Primary Care 35 N/A 2550 10.2 (5.5) 43.2 (7.7)
Quaschning (2013) Germany Mixed N/A N/A 402 N/A 41.5 (7.3)
Rees (2014) UK Allied health professionals N/A N/A 225 N/A 43.1 (7.8)
Scales (2008) US Allied health professionals 1 N/A 411 N/A 47.6 (4.4)
Scarpellini (2014) Brazil Physicians/Specialists 12 N/A 12 N/A 41.4 (6.0)
Scheffer (2013a) Germany Medical Students N/A N/A 103 N/A 45.4 (5.5)
Scheffer (2013b) Germany Medical Students N/A N/A 94 N/A 41.7 (9.0)
Steinhausen (2014) Germany Physicians/Specialists N/A N/A 120 N/A 38.0 (9.8)
Tran (2012) Australia Physicians/Primary Care 3 N/A 38 15.0 (4.0) 43.4 (4.2)
Weiss (2015) UK Mixed 51 0.69 207 N/A 43.0 (7.4)
Wong (2013) Hong Kong Physicians/Primary Care 9 N/A 1030 7.7 (4.7) 34.4 (7.8)
Wu (2015a) China Physicians/Specialists N/A N/A 199 N/A 39.6 (8.3)
Wu (2015b) China Physicians/CAM N/A N/A 146 N/A 41.2 (8.6)
Wu (2015c) China Physicians/Specialists N/A N/A 139 N/A 38.4 (8.7)
Yu (2015a) Hong Kong Physicians/not specified 6 0.33 179 4.5 (2.4) 29.2 (7.4)
Yu (2015b) Hong Kong Physicians/Specialists 7 0.57 207 10.5 (8.6) 35.5 (8.9)
Yu (2015c) Hong Kong Physicians/Primary Care 14 0.50 435 7.4 (4.8) 35.7 (8.3)
Zilliacus (2011a) Australia Physicians/Specialists N/A N/A 178 N/A 41.3 (9.6)
Zilliacus (2011b) Australia Genetic Counselor N/A N/A 152 N/A 44.6 (7.8)