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Table 4 Predictors of attitudes and behaviors concerning the “screening” spiritual history

From: The spiritual history in outpatient practice: attitudes and practices of health professionals in the Adventist Health System

  Physicians Mid-level Practitioners Nurses, Other Health Professionals & Staff
B(SE) B(SE) B(SE)
Health professionals should do a screening spiritual history (range 1–6)
Age ---- 0.021 (0.009)* ----
Race ---- ---- −0.13 (0.16)
AHS employee/contractor ---- −0.27 (0.24) ----
Specialty (family medicine) 0.09 (0.12) ---- ----
Non-Christian affiliation −0.30 (0.14)* ---- ----
No religious affiliation ---- 0.28 (0.57) −0.34 (0.39)
Importance of religion 0.41 (0.04)**** 0.53 (0.11)**** 0.49 (0.06)****
Model R-square (n) 0.22 (423)**** 0.36 (n = 93)**** 0.29 (213)****
Physician is health professional who should do spiritual history (yes = 44% overall)
Race 0.38 (0.22) ---- ----
AHS employee/contractor ---- −0.81 (0.48) ----
Site (Florida Hospital) −0.60 (0.22)** −0.67 (0.47) ----
Specialty (family medicine) 0.53 (0.22)* ---- ----
No religious affiliation −0.97 (1.15) ---- ----
Importance of religion 0.36 (0.09)**** ---- ----
Likelihood ratio (n) 41.4 (407)**** 5.37 (91) ----
Patients most often respond to spiritual history with acceptance/appreciation (yes = 66%)
Age ---- 0.045 (0.023) ----
Years in practice ---- 0.01 (0.04) ----
AHS employee/contractor ---- −1.30 (0.57)* ----
Specialty (family medicine) 0.33 (0.25) ---- ----
Non-Christian affiliation −0.27 (0.27) ---- ----
Importance of religion 0.13 (0.08) 0.36 (0.20) 0.21 (0.11)
Likelihood ratio (n) 7.00 (404) 19.3 (90)*** 3.61 (205)
All outpatients should receive spiritual history (yes = 50%)
Age ---- 0.043 (0.022) ----
Gender −0.49 (0.23)* ---- ----
Race −0.40 (0.22) ---- ----
Site (Florida Hospital) 0.71 (0.23)** ---- ----
AHS employee/contractor −0.19 (0.22) ---- ----
Years in practice ---- 0.055 (0.034) ----
Specialty (family medicine) −0.51 (0.24)* ---- ----
Importance of religion 0.29 (0.09)*** 0.29 (0.19) 0.27 (0.11)*
Likelihood ratio (n) 42.9 (401)**** 18.5 (89)*** 6.7 (211)**
Spiritual history should be documented in medical record (yes = 70%)
Gender 0.26 (0.24) 0.62 (0.81) 1.69 (0.62)**
Race ---- −1.85 (1.07) ----
Specialty (family medicine) 0.69 (0.25)** 1.14 (0.62) ----
Likelihood ratio (n) 11.5 (415)** 8.9 (91)* 8.2 (214)**
Current frequency of taking a spiritual history (range 1–6)
Age 0.009 (0.004)* 0.015 (0.010) 0.007 (0.007)
Gender 0.21(0.12) ---- ----
Race −0.31 (0.12)* ---- ----
Site (Florida Hospital) −0.17 (0.12) ---- ----
Specialty (family medicine) 0.37 (0.12)** ---- ----
Years in practice ---- 0.024 (0.014) 0.016 (0.009)
AHS employee/contractor −0.30 (0.12)* ---- ----
Non-Christian affiliation −0.31 (0.14)* ---- ----
Importance of religion 0.19 (0.04)**** 0.10 (0.08) 0.19 (0.06)**
Model R-square (n) 0.16 (404)**** 0.14 (91)** 0.08 (208)***
Willing to do a spiritual history (range 1–6)
Age 0.003 (0.004) 0.016 (0.007)* ----
Gender ---- 0.53 (0.30)* ----
Site (Florida Hospital) ---- ---- 0.21 (0.16)
Years in practice 0.006 (0.006) ---- ----
Non-Christian affiliation −0.07 (0.12) ---- ----
No religious affiliation ---- −0.11 (0.45) ----
Importance of religion 0.21 (0.04)**** 0.27 (0.08)** 0.23 (0.06)****
Model R-square (n) 0.10 (422)**** 0.25 (93)**** 0.08 (207)***
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001, "----" not significant in bivariate analyses
  2. B = unstandardized beta, SE = standard error (from general linear model for continuous outcomes or from logistic regression model for dichotomous outcomes)