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Table 4 Categories and findings- At Individual level

From: Perceptions of residents, medical and nursing students about Interprofessional education: a systematic review of the quantitative and qualitative literature

Category Papers Subcategories Findings
Readiness for IPE 4 papers [30, 59, 62, 63] - Gender - Females had more readiness for IPE than males.
2 papers [61, 64] - Stereotyped views - Increased understanding of others’ role and of the students’ own competence in IPC led to lesser stereotyping and more readiness for IPC.
1 paper [55]   - First year students with a parent working in healthcare started with lower readiness.
2 papers [30, 63] - Earlier healthcare experience - Earlier work experience in health care did not influence attitudes toward collaboration but it did result in higher readiness for IPE.
1 paper [65] - Profession and phase of study - Younger students achieved more learning outcomes than students who had graduated in some professions.
Facilitators 1 paper [66] - Being available and receptive - Working together required physical proximity (place), time to interact and intellectual availability, with knowledge about the work they are doing and about each other’s’ roles as care providers. Being receptive is conveying respect, trust and interest in collaboration.
2 papers [16, 67] - Relatedness within/outside group - Professionals interact the best in their group, this was overcome when situations created a feeling of urgency and demanded collaboration.
4 papers [33, 68, 69, 76] - Having own role clarity - All students groups reported a gain in understanding of the importance of communication and teamwork in patient care; medical students reporting the greatest gain and they also gained most in clarity of own professional role.
Barriers 2 papers [66, 78] - Unprofessional behavior - Arrogance or disinterest, aggressive behavior, nurses delaying acting on orders or going to other doctors, the need to “sell oneself” to other professions.
2 papers [40, 53] - Emphasizing professional knowledge at the cost of teamwork skills - When medical students focus on professional knowledge rather than on teamwork skills, and when nurses feel intimidated.