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Table 3 Categories and findings- At Process / curricular level

From: Perceptions of residents, medical and nursing students about Interprofessional education: a systematic review of the quantitative and qualitative literature

Category Papers Subcategories Findings
Readiness for IPE 6 papers [2932, 62, 63] - Readiness fluctuates - Readiness for IPE and professional identity were highest at entry, higher in students with prior IPE experience and declined significantly over time.
Facilitators 4 papers – workplace setting [35]; practice immersion [34]; 1 day workshop [73]; simulation [33] - Immersion in collaboration - Diverse IPE forms, all authentic patient settings, improved the perceptions about interpersonal skills, professional competence, leadership, academic ability, being a team player or independent worker, confidence, decision-making and practical skills of the other health professions.
2 papers [28, 50]   - Understanding of team roles and team interdependence scored high. In one study perception of team efficacy decreased after graduation.
3 papers [20, 49, 50]; - Exposure to IP teams - Students ask for longitudinal integrated IPE and longitudinal clerkships
   - IPE as a training in comparison with lectures resulted in significantly higher mean scores on the subscales ‘quality of care’ and ‘patient-centered care’.
7 papers
[33, 35, 3941, 57, 71]
- Stimulating teamwork training - Training of team communication skills enhances motivation and positive attitudes toward IPC. Students had learned about their performance and lack of professional skills alongside team skills.
6 papers
[17, 18, 25, 4244]
- Teacher facilitating reflection - A teacher helping students think, plan, do and check their work, thus stimulating teamwork rather than teaching knowledge.
6 papers
[23, 24, 4649, 76]
- Shared learning - Value in learning about professional differences and identity. Students saw the benefits of shared learning, medical students saw the advantages only early in their training.
18 papers
[21, 22, 34, 35, 37, 39, 43, 44, 5459, 68, 74, 75, 77]
- Learning in authentic context - Clinical realism, like simulation or interprofessional training unit, offered students an opportunity to identify other professionals’ functions in relation to patient care and to clearly assess and describe patients’ problems and needs.
1 paper [49]   - Readiness for IPE and attitude towards health care teams improved after IPE involving teaching through practice and decreased after IPE involving teaching only through lectures.
2 papers [43, 77] - Integrating IPE & specific learning goals - Combination of professional specific and IPE learning goals was achieved by students in advanced years (8th semester)
1 paper [59] - Follow up training - A Team communication training was followed by regular IP team meetings.
Barriers 8 papers
[17, 2224, 30, 60, 75, 78]
- Combining IPE & profess. Specific learning objectives - Medical students experienced confusion and tension when profession-specific and IPE objectives are combined.
1 paper [44] - Teacher who just transmits knowledge - Teacher who just transmits knowledge rather than stimulating students to think, plan, do and reflect.
1 paper [23] - Lack of assessment - IPE loses importance when not assessed, especially for medical students, who are concerned about learning inappropriate skills.
1 paper [75] - Being present in the ward all day - Medical students were not used to the requirement to be present in the ward all day.