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Table 1 Comparison of test results between the M-learning and control groups

From: The effectiveness of a mobile application for the development of palpation and ultrasound imaging skills to supplement the traditional learning of physiotherapy students

Variable M-learning group (N = 25) Control group (N = 24) P value
Knowledge test (maximum 10 points) 7.21 ± 1.988 8.09 ± .921 .089
OSCE- time ultrasound (sec) 56.756 ± 27.563 51.985 ± 28.726 .944
OSCE-time palpation (sec) 41.223 ± 17.757 45.926 ± 20.817 .393
Ultrasound skills
- Positioning of patient 2.925 ± .266 1.869 ± .344 .000*
- Positioning of ultrasound probe 2.629 ± .791 1.869 ± 1.099 .007*
- Orientation (angle) of ultrasound probe 2.407 ± .930 2.227 ± 1.151 .548
- Handling of ultrasound probe 1.703 ± .724 1.173 ± .716 .013*
- Image adjustment 2.333 ± 1.000 1.913 ± 1.239 .191
- Global OSCE (maximum 15 points) 12.000 ± 2.572 9.000 ± 2.943 .000*
Palpation skills
- Position of patient 3.000 ± .000 2.708 ± .55 .009*
- Position of extremity 2.461 ± .904 2.291 ± .954 .521
- Direction of palpation contact 2.461 ± .859 1.833 ± 1.007 .021*
- Precision of palpation 1.846 ± .880 1.416 ± 1.017 .116
- Global OSCE (maximum 12 points) 12.038 ± 3.155 9.833 ± 3.963 .034*
  1. *Significant differences between groups (Student’s t test and Mann-Witney U test).
  2. Values ± SD are expressed as the mean (95 % confidence interval)