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Table 4 Medical student (n = 116) self-reported increase in confidence* across all items, pre-post

From: Using standardized patient encounters to teach longitudinal continuity of care in a family medicine clerkship

Measure Pre-Test Mean (SD) Post-Test Mean (SD) Mean Difference (Post-Pre) 95% Confidence Interval of Difference P value Effect Size
Providing continuity of care 1.75 (.62) 2.47 (.50) 0.72 .84, .61 <.001 1.17
Establishing rapport with patients 2.32 (.56) 2.74 (.44) 0.42 .53, .31 <.001 0.74
Expressing empathy 2.33 (.64) 2.67 (.49) 0.34 .45, .22 <.001 0.53
Management of diabetes 1.64 (.64) 2.43 (.54) 0.79 .91, .67 <.001 1.23
Management of hypertension 1.72 (.60) 2.52 (.53) 0.80 .92, .67 <.001 1.32
Management of hyperlipidemia 1.64 (.64) 2.45 (.53) 0.81 .93, .69 <.001 1.27
Lifestyle counseling on smoking 1.82 (.65) 2.48 (.56) 0.66 .78, .53 <.001 1.01
Lifestyle counseling on diet 1.79 (.69) 2.48 (.58) 0.69 .82, .57 <.001 1.01
Lifestyle counseling on exercise 1.85 (.68) 2.54 (.57) 0.69 .82, .57 <.001 1.02
Demonstrating whole person care 1.72 (.62) 2.50 (.56) 0.78 .92, .65 <.001 1.28
Understanding how a patient’s context impacts their health 1.84 (.58) 2.56 (.53) 0.72 .84, .59 <.001 1.24
Using an EMR in conjunction with a patient visit 1.84 (.70) 2.43 (.60) 0.59 .73, .44 <.001 0.84
  1. *Confidence was scored on a scale from 0 (not at all confident) to 3 (very confident). P values for the change in individual items are based on the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Effect sizes calculated as (post-test mean- pre-test mean)/ pre-test standard deviation