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Table 2 Papers providing empirical evidence for the validity of licensing examinations mapped against sources of –validity evidence [24]

From: The impact of large scale licensing examinations in highly developed countries: a systematic review

Content Response process Internal structure Relationship to other variables Consequences
CEUP (2008): ‘Comprehensive Review of USMLE Summary of the Final Report and Recommendations’
Lillis, S., Stuart, M., Sidonie, Takai, N. (2012): ‘New Zealand Registration Examination (NZREX Clinical): 6 years of experience as an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)’
Ranney, R.R. (2006): ‘What the Available Evidence on Clinical Licensure Exams Shows.’
Guttormsen, S., Beyeler, C., Bonvin, R., Feller, S., Schirlo, C., Schnabel, K., Schurter, T., Berendonk, C. (2013): ‘The new licensing examination for human medicine: from concept to implementation.’
Lillis, S., Stuart, M., Sidonie, Takai, N. (2012): ‘New Zealand Registration Examination (NZREX Clinical): 6 years of experience as an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)’
Seyfarth et al., (2010): ‘Grades on the Second Medical Licensing Examination in Germany Before and After the Licensing Reform of 2002.’
Guttormsen, S., Beyeler, C., Bonvin, R., Feller, S., Schirlo, C., Schnabel, K., Schurter, T., Berendonk, C. (2013): ‘The new licensing examination for human medicine: from concept to implementation.’
Harik, P., Clauser, B.E., Grabovsky, I., Margolis, M.J., Dillion, G.F., Boulet, J.(2006): ‘Relationships among subcomponents of the USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills examination, the Step 1, and the Step 2 Clinical Knowledge examinations.
Lillis, S., Stuart, M., Sidonie, Takai, N. (2012): ‘New Zealand Registration Examination (NZREX Clinical): 6 years of experience as an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)’
Ranney, R.R. (2006): ‘What the Available Evidence on Clinical Licensure Exams Shows.’
Guttormsen, S., Beyeler, C., Bonvin, R., Feller, S., Schirlo, C., Schnabel, K., Schurter, T., Berendonk, C. (2013): ‘The new licensing examination for human medicine: from concept to implementation.’
Cuddy, M.M., Dillion, G.F., Holtman, M.C., Clauser, B. (2006): ‘A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationships Between Selected Examinee Characteristics and United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Performance: Revisiting Old Findings and Asking New Questions.’
Harik, P., Clauser, B.E., Grabovsky, I., Margolis, M.J., Dillion, G.F., Boulet, J.(2006): ‘Relationships among subcomponents of the USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills examination, the Step 1, and the Step 2 Clinical Knowledge examinations.’
Guttormsen, S., Beyeler, C., Bonvin, R., Feller, S., Schirlo, C., Schnabel, K., Schurter, T., Berendonk, C. (2013): ‘The new licensing examination for human medicine: from concept to implementation.’
Hecker K, & Violato, C. (2008): ‘How much do differences in Medical Schools Influence Student Performance? A Longitudinal Study Employing Hierarchical Linear Modelling.
Kenny, S., McInnes, M., Singh, V. (2013): ‘Associations between residency selection strategies and doctor performance: a meta-analysis.’
McManus, I., & Wakeford, R. (2014): ‘PLAB and UK graduates performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study.’
Norcini et al., (2014): ‘The relationship between licensing examination performance and the outcomes of care by international medical school graduates.’
Ranney, R.R. (2006): ‘What the Available Evidence on Clinical Licensure Exams Shows.’
Stewart, et al., (2005): ‘Relationship Between Performance in Dental School and Performance on a Dental Licensure Examination: An Eight Year Study.’
Sutherland, K., & Leatherman, S. (2006): ‘Regulation and Quality Improvement A Review of the Evidence.’
Tamblyn et el., (2007): ‘Physician Scores on a National Clinical Skills Examination as Predictors of Complaints to Medical Regulatory Authorities.
Tiffin et al., (2014): ‘Annual Review of Competence Progression ARCP Performance of doctors who passed Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) tests compared with UK graduates.’
Zahn et al., (2012): ‘Correlation of National Board of Medical Examiner’s Scores with the USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Scores.’
Ahn, D., & Ahn, S. (2007): Reconsidering the Cut Score of the Korean National Medical Licensing Examination
Gilliland WR, Rochelle JL, Hawkins R, Dillon GF, Mechaber AJ, Dyrbye L, et al. (2008) ‘Changes in clinical skills education resulting from the introduction of the USMLE™ step 2 clinical skills (CS) examination.’
Green, M., Jones, P., Thomas Jr, J.X. (2009): ‘Selection Criteria for Residency: Results of a National Program Directors Survey.’
Guttormsen, S., Beyeler, C., Bonvin, R., Feller, S., Schirlo, C., Schnabel, K., Schurter, T., Berendonk, C. (2013): ‘The new licensing examination for human medicine: from concept to implementation.’
Holtzman et al., (2014): ‘International variation in performance by clinical discipline and task on the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Component.’
Kenny, S., McInnes, M., Singh, V. (2013): ‘Associations between residency selection strategies and doctor performance: a meta-analysis.’
Kugler, A. D, & Sauer, R.M. (2005): Doctors without Borders? Relicensing Requirements and Negative Selection in the Market for Physicians.’
Lillis, S., Stuart, M., Sidonie, Takai, N. (2012): ‘New Zealand Registration Examination (NZREX Clinical): 6 years of experience as an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)’
Margolis et al., (2010): ‘Validity Evidence for USMLE Examination Cut Scores: Results of a Large Scale Survey’
Musoke, S. (2012): ‘Foreign Doctors and the Road to a Swedish Medical License.’
Ranney, R.R. (2006): ‘What the Available Evidence on Clinical Licensure Exams Shows.’
Stewart, et al., (2005): ‘Relationship Between Performance in Dental School and Performance on a Dental Licensure Examination: An Eight Year Study.’

Wenghofer et al., (2009): ‘Doctors’ Scores on National Qualifying Examinations Predict Quality of Care in Future Practice.’