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Table 2 Characteristics of facilitative and non-facilitative tutoring (as defined in the study protocol. Group interaction phases are F = forming, S = storming, and N = norming)

From: Evaluating differently tutored groups in problem-based learning in a German dental curriculum: a mixed methods study

Facilitative tutoring (f) Non-facilitative tutoring (nf)
Tutor Tutor
1. offers orientation and explanation (F). 1. is participative and delegates (F).
2. is aware of defined learning objectives (S). 2. is not aware of defined learning objectives (S).
3. intervenes actively in intra-group processes, if required (N). 3. intervenes in acute necessity in intra-group processes (N).
4. helps the group in the “forming” process (F). 4. doesn’t help the group in the forming process (F).
5. recognize and specify arising conflicts (S). 5. recognize, but doesn’t specify arising conflicts (S).
6. encourages participation of members, if necessary (S). 6. doesn’t encourages participation of members (S).
7. facilitates actively group collaboration (S). 7. does’t facilitates actively group collaboration (S).
8. offers during the session corrective feedback, if necessary (N). 8. doesn’t offer during the session corrective feedback (N).