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Table 2 Categorisation, descriptions and limitations of pre-existing taxonomies and frameworks relevant to acute care

From: Exploring patterns of error in acute care using framework analysis

Sub-categorisation of pre-existing frameworks Description Limitations in relation to this work
Behavioural marker systems Observable, non-technical behaviours that contribute to superior or substandard performance within a work environment” [6] which have been sub-divided according to the research-derived categories relevant to a particular context and professional group [7-10]. a) Developed and validated for use within a particular context e.g. The Oxford Non-Technical Skills scale [11] is used in theatre where the challenges clearly differ substantially from those encountered when dealing with a life-threatening situation in a general ward.
b) Previous studies [12,13] indicate that there are deficits relating to knowledge base and technical skills which need to be identified, in addition to the non-technical skills addressed by behavioural marking systems.
Scenario checklists Lists of actions or behaviours (often specific clinical tasks) relevant to an individual clinical scenario [14-16]. Most checklists developed for acute care scenarios include aspects of timed assessment (such as time taken to assess airway, breathing and circulation) [16-18] giving numerical values that primarily reveal the consequences and not the causes of error.
Resuscitation competencies Structured resuscitation courses [19,20] use lists of competencies that have often been developed using a modified Delphi process or similar technique [20]. a) Scenario-specificity combined with granular detail make competency lists unsuitable for this study.
b) Previous work indicates that whilst technical skills are a source of concern for both junior doctors and their educational supervisors, non-technical skills such as decision-making, initiative and prioritisation are also felt to be important [21].