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Table 4 Differences between learning variables and outcomes among different motivational profiles [MANCOVA]

From: Motivational profiles of medical students: Association with study effort, academic performance and exhaustion

  Interest + status motivated (HIHC) Mean (SD) Interest-motivated (HILC) Mean (SD) Status-motivated (LIHC) Mean (SD) Low-motivation (LILC) Mean (SD) F Eta squared (% of variance explained)
Intrinsic motivation (n = 844, scale score = 1-7) 5.70a (0.41) 5.07b (0.36) 4.63c (0.39) 3.85d (0.45) 452.72*** 0.694 (69.4%)
Controlled motivation (n = 844, scale score = 1-7) 4.96a (0.74) 2.90b (0.69) 4.64c (0.57) 2.82b (0.88) 352.77*** 0.639 (63.9%)
Deep strategy (n = 709, scale score = 1-5) 3.10a (0.55) 2.93b (0.62) 2.64c (0.58) 2.40d (0.65) 31.64 *** 0.137 (13.7%)
Surface strategy (n = 709, scale score = 1-5) 2.39a (0.62) 2.14b (0.52) 2.50a (0.57) 2.37a (0.59) 11.48 *** 0.054 (5.4%)
Self -study hours (n = 796) 14.16a,b (7.67) 14.65a (7.69) 12.77b (6.31) 13.20a,b (6.61) 3.05** 0.015 (1.5%)
ECs (n = 780) 21.39a (8.15) 19.84a (8.77) 20.95a (8.07) 20.23a (7.96) 1.126 0.004 (0.4%)
GPA (n = 780) 7.41a (0.93) 7.62a,b (0.76) 7.20c (0.93) 7.35a,c (0.86) 5.78*** 0.028 (2.8%)
Exhaustion from study (n = 844, scale score = 0-6) 1.91a (1.03) 1.83a,b (0.99) 2.14a,c (1.03) 2.29c (1.06) 5.04** 0.025 (2.5%)
  1. **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001.
  2. The means with different subscripts are significantly different from each other, i.e. a mean with subscript “a” is significantly different from a mean with subscript “b” or “c”.
  3. Effect sizes from Eta squared: Small = 0.01-0.06, Medium = 0.06-0.138, Large > 0.138 [32].