Intrinsic motivation (n = 844, scale score = 17)

5.70_{a} (0.41)

5.07_{b} (0.36)

4.63_{c} (0.39)

3.85_{d} (0.45)

452.72***

0.694 (69.4%)

Controlled motivation (n = 844, scale score = 17)

4.96_{a} (0.74)

2.90_{b} (0.69)

4.64_{c} (0.57)

2.82_{b} (0.88)

352.77***

0.639 (63.9%)

Deep strategy (n = 709, scale score = 15)

3.10_{a} (0.55)

2.93_{b} (0.62)

2.64_{c} (0.58)

2.40_{d} (0.65)

31.64 ***

0.137 (13.7%)

Surface strategy (n = 709, scale score = 15)

2.39_{a} (0.62)

2.14_{b} (0.52)

2.50_{a} (0.57)

2.37_{a} (0.59)

11.48 ***

0.054 (5.4%)

Self study hours (n = 796)

14.16_{a,b} (7.67)

14.65_{a} (7.69)

12.77_{b} (6.31)

13.20_{a,b} (6.61)

3.05**

0.015 (1.5%)

ECs (n = 780)

21.39_{a} (8.15)

19.84_{a} (8.77)

20.95_{a} (8.07)

20.23_{a} (7.96)

1.126

0.004 (0.4%)

GPA (n = 780)

7.41_{a} (0.93)

7.62_{a,b} (0.76)

7.20_{c} (0.93)

7.35_{a,c} (0.86)

5.78***

0.028 (2.8%)

Exhaustion from study (n = 844, scale score = 06)

1.91_{a} (1.03)

1.83_{a,b} (0.99)

2.14_{a,c} (1.03)

2.29_{c} (1.06)

5.04**

0.025 (2.5%)
